Music and Sound Research BRAMS

Montréal, Canada

Music and Sound Research BRAMS

Montréal, Canada
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Albouy P.,Montreal Neurological Institute | Albouy P.,Music and Sound Research BRAMS | Weiss A.,Montreal Neurological Institute | Baillet S.,Montreal Neurological Institute | And 2 more authors.
Neuron | Year: 2017

The implication of the dorsal stream in manipulating auditory information in working memory has been recently established. However, the oscillatory dynamics within this network and its causal relationship with behavior remain undefined. Using simultaneous MEG/EEG, we show that theta oscillations in the dorsal stream predict participants’ manipulation abilities during memory retention in a task requiring the comparison of two patterns differing in temporal order. We investigated the causal relationship between brain oscillations and behavior by applying theta-rhythmic TMS combined with EEG over the MEG-identified target (left intraparietal sulcus) during the silent interval between the two stimuli. Rhythmic TMS entrained theta oscillation and boosted participants’ accuracy. TMS-induced oscillatory entrainment scaled with behavioral enhancement, and both gains varied with participants’ baseline abilities. These effects were not seen for a melody-comparison control task and were not observed for arrhythmic TMS. These data establish theta activity in the dorsal stream as causally related to memory manipulation. Video Abstract © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Coffey E.B.J.,Montreal Neurological Institute | Coffey E.B.J.,Music and Sound Research BRAMS | Coffey E.B.J.,Center for Research on Brain | Musacchia G.,Pacific University in Oregon | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2017

The frequency-following response (FFR) is a measure of the brain’s periodic sound encoding. It is of increasing importance for studying the human auditory nervous system due to numerous associations with auditory cognition and dysfunction. Although the FFR is widely interpreted as originating from brainstem nuclei, a recent study using MEG suggested that there is also a right-lateralized contribution from the auditory cortex at the fundamental frequency (Coffey et al., 2016b). Our objectives in the present work were to validate and better localize this result using a completely different neuroimaging modality and to document the relationships between the FFR, the onset response, and cortical activity. Using a combination of EEG, fMRI, and diffusion-weighted imaging, we show that activity in the right auditory cortex is related to individual differences in FFR–fundamental frequency (f0) strength, a finding that was replicated with two independent stimulus sets, with and without acoustic energy at the fundamental frequency. We demonstrate a dissociation between this FFR–f0-sensitive response in the right and an area in left auditory cortex that is sensitive to individual differences in the timing of initial response to sound onset. Relationships to timing and their lateralization are supported by parallels in the microstructure of the underlying white matter, implicating a mechanism involving neural conduction efficiency. These data confirm that the FFR has a cortical contribution and suggest ways in which auditory neuroscience may be advanced by connecting early sound representation to measures of higher-level sound processing and cognitive function. © 2017 the authors.

Andoh J.,Montreal Neurological Institute | Andoh J.,Music and Sound Research BRAMS | Andoh J.,University of Heidelberg | Zatorre R.J.,Montreal Neurological Institute | Zatorre R.J.,Music and Sound Research BRAMS
NeuroImage | Year: 2013

Interhemispheric interactions can be important in transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies investigating motor or cognitive brain functions, but their role in predicting the outcome of TMS is not clear. Previously, we showed that individual differences in interhemispheric functional connectivity of auditory cortices influenced the behavioral effect of repetitive TMS (rTMS) applied over auditory cortex in a melody discrimination task. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning with the same task was carried out before and after rTMS applied over auditory cortex to determine how rTMS affects both behavior and neural function. After rTMS applied over the right auditory cortex, we found mean increases in activation in the contralateral auditory cortex. The degree and direction of modulation of the fMRI response were correlated with behavior: the higher the contralateral increase after stimulation, the faster the response times, whereas individuals with reduced contralateral activity showed no behavioral facilitation. We also found that higher interhemispheric connectivity between auditory cortices before TMS was associated with faster response times. This study shows directly the role of functional connectivity in the auditory network on TMS-induced modulation, which could explain its often variable effects on behavior. Combined TMS and fMRI is particularly useful to promote plastic reorganization in the auditory network and has implications for research on auditory-related disorders. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Voss P.,Montreal Neurological Institute | Voss P.,Music and Sound Research BRAMS | Zatorre R.J.,Montreal Neurological Institute | Zatorre R.J.,Music and Sound Research BRAMS
Cerebral Cortex | Year: 2012

The behavioral and neurofunctional consequences of blindness often include performance enhancements and recruitment of occipital regions for nonvisual tasks. How the neuroanatomical changes resulting from this sensory loss relate to these functional changes is, however, less clear. Previous studies using cortical thickness (CT) measures have shown thicker occipital cortex in early-blind (EB) individuals compared with sighted controls. We hypothesized that this finding reflects the crossmodal plasticity often observed in blind individuals and thus could reflect behavioral adaptations. To address this issue, CT measures in blind (early and late) and sighted subjects were obtained along with several auditory behavioral measures in an attempt to relate behavioral and neuroanatomical changes. Group contrasts confirmed previous results in showing thicker occipital cortex in the EB. Regression analyses between CT measures across the whole brain of all blind individuals with the behavioral scores from 2 tasks in which EB subjects were superior (pitch and melody discrimination) showed that CT of occipital areas was directly related to behavioral enhancements. These findings constitute a compelling demonstration that anatomical changes in occipital areas are directly related to heightened behavioral abilities in the blind and hence support the idea that these anatomical features reflect adaptive compensatory plasticity. © 2012 The Author.

Paraskevopoulos E.,University of Munster | Kuchenbuch A.,University of Munster | Herholz S.C.,Montreal Neurological Institute | Herholz S.C.,Music and Sound Research BRAMS | Pantev C.,University of Munster
Neuropsychologia | Year: 2012

This study aimed to assess the effect of musical training in statistical learning of tone sequences using Magnetoencephalography (MEG). Specifically, MEG recordings were used to investigate the neural and functional correlates of the pre-attentive ability for detection of deviance, from a statistically learned tone sequence. The effect of long-term musical training in this ability is investigated by means of comparison of MMN in musicians to non-musicians. Both groups (musicians and non-musicians) showed a mismatch negativity (MMN) response to the deviants and this response did not differ amongst them neither in amplitude nor in latency. Another interesting finding of this study is that both groups revealed a significant difference between the standards and the deviants in the response of P50 and this difference was significantly larger in the group of musicians. The increase of this difference in the group of musicians underlies that intensive, specialized and long term exercise can enhance the ability of the auditory cortex to discriminate new auditory events from previously learned ones according to transitional probabilities. A behavioral discrimination task between the standard and the deviant sequences followed the MEG measurement. The behavioral results indicated that the detection of deviance was not explicitly learned by either group, probably due to the lack of attentional resources. These findings provide valuable insights on the functional architecture of statistical learning. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Zatorre R.J.,Montreal Neurological Institute | Zatorre R.J.,Music and Sound Research BRAMS | Halpern A.R.,Bucknell University | Bouffard M.,Montreal Neurological Institute
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience | Year: 2010

Two fMRI experiments explored the neural substrates of a musical imagery task that required manipulation of the imagined sounds: temporal reversal of a melody. Musicians were presented with the first few notes of a familiar tune (Experiment 1) or its title (Experiment 2), followed by a string of notes that was either an exact or an inexact reversal. The task was to judge whether the second string was correct or not by mentally reversing all its notes, thus requiring both maintenance and manipulation of the represented string. Both experiments showed considerable activation of the superior parietal lobe (intraparietal sulcus) during the reversal process. Ventrolateral and dorsolateral frontal cortices were also activated, consistent with the memory load required during the task. We also found weaker evidence for some activation of right auditory cortex in both studies, congruent with results from previous simpler music imagery tasks. We interpret these results in the context of other mental transformation tasks, such as mental rotation in the visual domain, which are known to recruit the intraparietal sulcus region, and we propose that this region subserves general computations that require transformations of a sensory input. Mental imagery tasks may thus have both task or modality-specific components as well as components that supersede any specific codes and instead represent amodal mental manipulation. © 2009 Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Pfordresher P.Q.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Pfordresher P.Q.,University of Warsaw | Dalla Bella S.,Music and Sound Research BRAMS
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance | Year: 2011

It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF (for piano tones) of differing lengths. Motion capture was used to analyze movement trajectories. Mean Inter-Response Intervals (IRIs) varied as an approximately sinusoidal function of feedback condition, with DAF causing slowed production for shorter delays and speeded production for faster delays. Motion capture analyses revealed that finger velocity at the time of DAF predicted the effect of DAF on mean IRI whereas finger position predicted the variability of IRIs. A second experiment in which participants were instructed to vary the timing of peak finger height confirmed that the effect of DAF on timing variability is directly influenced by the finger trajectory. © 2011 American Psychological Association.

Bailey J.A.,Concordia University at Montréal | Bailey J.A.,Music and Sound Research BRAMS | Zatorre R.J.,Music and Sound Research BRAMS | Zatorre R.J.,McGill University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Evidence in animals and humans indicates that there are sensitive periods during development, times when experience or stimulation has a greater influence on behavior and brain structure. Sensitive periods are the result of an interaction between maturational processes and experience-dependent plasticity mechanisms. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that adult musicians who begin training before the age of 7 show enhancements in behavior and white matter structure compared with those who begin later. Plastic changes in white matter and gray matter are hypothesized to co-occur; therefore, the current study investigated possible differences in gray matter structure between early-trained (ET; <7) and late-trained (LT; >7) musicians, matched for years of experience. Gray matter structure was assessed using voxel-wise analysis techniques (optimized voxel-based morphometry, traditional voxel-based morphometry, and deformation-based morphometry) and surface-based measures (cortical thickness, surface area and mean curvature). Deformation-based morphometry analyses identified group differences between ET and LT musicians in right ventral premotor cortex (vPMC), which correlated with performance on an auditory motor synchronization task and with age of onset of musical training. In addition, cortical surface area in vPMC was greater for ET musicians. These results are consistent with evidence that premotor cortex shows greatest maturational change between the ages of 6-9 years and that this region is important for integrating auditory and motor information. We propose that the auditory and motor interactions required by musical practice drive plasticity in vPMC and that this plasticity is greatest when maturation is near its peak. © 2014 Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Nozaradan S.,Catholic University of Louvain | Nozaradan S.,Music and Sound Research BRAMS
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

The ability to perceive a regular beat in music and synchronize to this beat is a widespread human skill. Fundamental to musical behaviour, beat and meter refer to the perception of periodicities while listening to musical rhythms and often involve spontaneous entrainment to move on these periodicities. Here, we present a novel experimental approach inspired by the frequency-tagging approach to understand the perception and production of rhythmic inputs. This approach is illustrated here by recording the human electroencephalogram responses at beat and meter frequencies elicited in various contexts: mental imagery of meter, spontaneous induction of a beat from rhythmic patterns, multisensory integration and sensorimotor synchronization. Collectively, our observations support the view that entrainment and resonance phenomena subtend the processing of musical rhythms in the human brain. More generally, they highlight the potential of this approach to help us understand the link between the phenomenology of musical beat and meter and the bias towards periodicities arising under certain circumstances in the nervous system. Entrainment to music provides a highly valuable framework to explore general entrainment mechanisms as embodied in the human brain. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Voss P.,Montreal Neurological Institute | Voss P.,University of Montréal | Voss P.,Music and Sound Research BRAMS | Zatorre R.J.,Montreal Neurological Institute | And 2 more authors.
Current Biology | Year: 2012

The scientific literature has grown rich in research illustrating the remarkable ability of the brain to reorganize itself following sensory loss. In particular, visually deafferented regions within the occipital cortex of early blind individuals have been repeatedly shown to be functionally recruited to carry out a wide variety of nonvisual tasks. While the novelty of such a finding might be wearing off, more recent research has begun to examine whether this crossmodal takeover of the occipital cortex in blindness follows some sort of organizational principle. Here we first review the most recent evidence from neuroimaging studies that illustrate how the pre-existing functional specialization of cortical sub-regions appears to be preserved following sensory deprivation. We discuss and compare work on visual and auditory deprivation, as well as research on individuals with intact sensory systems. We suggest avenues for future exploration of these issues, such as identifying the neuroanatomical markers of crossmodal plasticity and elucidating the behavioral relevance of observed changes. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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