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Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.44M | Year: 2011

Mushroom growers are struggling to maintain benefit margins due to the globalization of agricultural markets, the increasing cost of raw materials/utilities and often the use of outdated and inefficient cultivation methods; it is no surprise that fresh mushrooms are often delivered under cost price, as manifested by SME participants. The consortium understands that technological innovation is the best option to maintain competitiveness and to keep an acceptable benefit margins for the growers, in line with overall agro sector trends: pursuing the technology-driven consolidation of the mushroom sector is a must for the survival of this industry. The white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is the leading mushroom crop worldwide; of the 965 mil tonnes of these mushrooms produced in Europe over 2007, the 60% is sold fresh and the remainder are canned. Whereas for the canned industry mushrooms can be harvested and handled by an automated system, such automation does not yet exist for picking and handling mushrooms for the fresh market, due to the high quality standards required by this product: all mushroom in a tray should be of similar size and, above all, with no damage or blemish on its snow-white skin. Therefore, hand picking is the unique alternative, burdening producers with a cost accounting for between 20 and 46% of their total production costs, depending on the country. The suggested Champi-ON project aims developing a fully automated system for picking and handling mushrooms for the fresh market, bringing them from the growing bed to the cooling storage piled in trays, without causing any damage or blemish in the white skin mushroom. The system will implement under the same framework computer vision techniques, mechatronics and automation. Champi-ON will reduce the required labour for harvesting and handling fresh mushrooms by 80%.

In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycota, Cordycipitaceae) was sequenced. This mitochondrial genome is 33,277 bp in length and consisted of 14 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA subunits and 27 transfer RNAs. The overall nucleotide composition of is 36.98% A, 26.23% T, 15.21% G and 11.59% C, with an AT bias of 73.21%. The mtDNA of C. militaris contains a total of eight group-introns of which total size is 11,052 bp in length and four of them are in the rnl gene. The mitochondrial genome of C. militaris presented here provides the complete genome information of C. militaris. © 2013 © 2013 Informa UK Ltd. Source

Seong Y.-A.,Pukyong National University | Shin P.-G.,Mushroom | Kim G.-D.,Pukyong National University
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2013

Anacardic acid (AA) is a constituent of the cashew nut shell and is known as an inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). We investigated the cytotoxicity of AA on cancer cells and more experiments to reveal the cell death mechanism focused on A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells for our interest in lung cancer. To examine the molecular mechanism of cell death in AA treated A549 cells, we performed experiments such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), western blot analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), genomic DNA extraction and staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). For the first time we revealed that AA induces caspase-independent apoptosis with no inhibition of cytotoxicity by pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-fmk, in A549 cells. Our results showed the possibility of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis through the activation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and an intrinsic pathway executioner such as cytochrome c. This study will be helpful in revealing the cell death mechanisms and in developing potential drugs for lung cancer using AA. Source

Mushroom | Date: 2014-02-05

A method of aggregating a plurality of packet based communication channels is provided by the system. The communication channels connect two common endpoints, and aggregation devices are present at each endpoint to implement an aggregation policy. The system provides a dynamic aggregation system where m aggregation policy is employed on a per packet flow basis. Packet flows can be classified by application type, so that an appropriate aggregation policy can be used for packets belonging to the flow. The selected aggregation policy is used for each flow within the aggregation devices at each endpoint.

An apparatus and method for increasing Vitamin D content in mushrooms irradiates the mushroom(s) for a duration of up to six seconds with one or more pulses of light with wavelengths in the range of about 200 to about 1000 nanometers. The light is emitted by an electric glow discharge lamp, such as a xenon lamp, that emits ultra-violet light. The intensity of the light is such that after irradiation the mushrooms have a Vitamin D2 content of at least about 400 IU/84 g of mushrooms, which is 100% Daily Value of recommended Vitamin D for human consumption.

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