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Singh R.,Mushroom | Ahlawat O.P.,Mushroom | Rajor A.,Thapar University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

The study presents variation in microbial population of Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea spent substrates (SMS) along with ligninolytic enzymes activity and textile effluent decolorization potential of microorganisms isolated from these. The effect of temperature, pH, carbon sources and immobilizing agents on effluent decolorization using different combinations of these microorganisms has also been studied. SMS of P. sajor-caju harbored highest population and diversity of bacteria and fungi compared to other SMSs. Schizophyllum commune and Pezizomycotina sp. from P. sajor-caju SMS, exhibited highest activities of laccase (11.8 and 8.32UmL-1) and lignin peroxidase (339 and 318UL-1), while Pseudomonas fluorescens of Manganese peroxidase. Highest decolorization was in presence of glucose and sucrose at 30°C, and microbial consortium comprised of the immobilized forms of S. commune and Pezizomycotina sp. on wheat straw and broth cultures of P. fluorescens, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycota, Cordycipitaceae) was sequenced. This mitochondrial genome is 33,277 bp in length and consisted of 14 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA subunits and 27 transfer RNAs. The overall nucleotide composition of is 36.98% A, 26.23% T, 15.21% G and 11.59% C, with an AT bias of 73.21%. The mtDNA of C. militaris contains a total of eight group-introns of which total size is 11,052 bp in length and four of them are in the rnl gene. The mitochondrial genome of C. militaris presented here provides the complete genome information of C. militaris. © 2013 © 2013 Informa UK Ltd. Source


Chang S.T.,Mushroom | Chang S.T.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Wasser S.P.,Haifa University | Wasser S.P.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms | Year: 2012

Mushrooms are part of fungal biota characterized by wonder. They rise up from lignocellulosic wastes: yet they become so bountiful and nourishing. Mushrooms are environmentally friendly. They biosynthesize their own food from agricultural crop residues, which would otherwise cause health hazards. The extant records show the continued use of some mushrooms, e.g., Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Cordyceps sinensis are now centuries old. This review presents a pyramid model for mushroom uses (industries), as food, dietary supplements (tonic), and medicine. A regular intake of mushrooms can make us healthier, fitter, and happier, and help us live longer. The sense of purpose and vision for the mushroom industries is also briefly discussed. A variety of mushrooms have been used traditionally in many different cultures for the maintenance of health and in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. A total of 126 medicinal functions are thought to be produced by medicinal mushrooms (MM) and fungi, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and anti-diabetic effects. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. The data on mushroom polysaccharides are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher Hetero- and Homobasidiomycetes. In particular, the most important for modern medicine are polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom polysaccharide compounds have proceeded through phase I, II, and III clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully as drugs in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Mushrooms are superior sources of different types of dietary supplements (DSs) (tonics). The advantages of using mushroom-based DSs as a matter of safety (as opposed to herbal preparations) are: (1) The overwhelming majority of mushrooms used for production of DSs are cultivated commercially (and not gathered in the wild). (2) Mushrooms are easily propagated vegetatively and thus keep to one clone. The mycelium can be stored for a long time, and the genetic and biochemical consistency can be checked after a considerable time. (3) The main advantage, in our opinion, is that many mushrooms are capable of growing in the form of mycelial biomass in submerged cultures. In this review, we discuss legal and regulatory issues introducing and controlling DSs from MMs in different countries, including the United States, the European Community, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and P.R. China, and guidelines of the World Health Organization. One of the targets of the present review is also to draw attention to many critically important unsolved problems in the future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21st century. © 2012 Begell House, Inc. Source


Seong Y.-A.,Pukyong National University | Shin P.-G.,Mushroom | Kim G.-D.,Pukyong National University
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2013

Anacardic acid (AA) is a constituent of the cashew nut shell and is known as an inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). We investigated the cytotoxicity of AA on cancer cells and more experiments to reveal the cell death mechanism focused on A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells for our interest in lung cancer. To examine the molecular mechanism of cell death in AA treated A549 cells, we performed experiments such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), western blot analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), genomic DNA extraction and staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). For the first time we revealed that AA induces caspase-independent apoptosis with no inhibition of cytotoxicity by pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-fmk, in A549 cells. Our results showed the possibility of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis through the activation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and an intrinsic pathway executioner such as cytochrome c. This study will be helpful in revealing the cell death mechanisms and in developing potential drugs for lung cancer using AA. Source


Patent
Mushroom | Date: 2014-02-05

A method of aggregating a plurality of packet based communication channels is provided by the system. The communication channels connect two common endpoints, and aggregation devices are present at each endpoint to implement an aggregation policy. The system provides a dynamic aggregation system where m aggregation policy is employed on a per packet flow basis. Packet flows can be classified by application type, so that an appropriate aggregation policy can be used for packets belonging to the flow. The selected aggregation policy is used for each flow within the aggregation devices at each endpoint.

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