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Sykes B.C.,University of Oxford | Mullis R.A.,PO Box 40143 | Hagenmuller C.,NaturAlpes | Melton T.W.,2565 Park Center Boulevard | Sartori M.,Museum of Zoology
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

In the first ever systematic genetic survey, we have used rigorous decontamination followed by mitochondrial 12S RNA sequencing to identify the species origin of 30 hair samples attributed to anomalous primates. Two Himalayan samples, one from Ladakh, India, the other from Bhutan, had their closest genetic affinity with a Palaeolithic polar bear, Ursus maritimus. Otherwise the hairs were from a range of known extant mammals. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Christe P.,Biophore | Glaizot O.,Museum of Zoology | Strepparava N.,Biophore | Strepparava N.,Instituto Cantonale Of Microbiologia | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Parental effort is usually associated with high metabolism that could lead to an increase in the production of reactive oxidative species giving rise to oxidative stress. Since many antioxidants involved in the resistance to oxidative stress can also enhance immune function, an increase in parental effort may diminish the level of antioxidants otherwise involved in parasite resistance. In the present study, we performed brood size manipulation in a population of great tits (Parus major) to create different levels of parental effort. We measured resistance to oxidative stress and used a newly developed quantitative PCR assay to quantify malarial parasitaemia. We found that males with an enlarged brood had significantly higher level of malarial parasites and lower red blood cell resistance to free radicals than males rearing control and reduced broods. Brood size manipulation did not affect female parasitaemia, although females with an enlarged brood had lower red blood cell resistance than females with control and reduced broods. However, for both sexes, there was no relationship between the level of parasitaemia and resistance to oxidative stress, suggesting a twofold cost of reproduction. Our results thus suggest the presence of two proximate and independent mechanisms for the well-documented trade-off between current reproductive effort and parental survival. © 2011 The Royal Society.


Gattolliat J.-L.,Museum of Zoology | Monaghan M.T.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries
Journal of the North American Benthological Society | Year: 2010

The mayfly fauna of Madagascar is highly diverse and largely endemic. Many species remain undescribed, and many species are known from only the larval or adult life stage. The high biodiversity in Madagascar and in other areas has led to an increasing reliance on DNA-based approaches to taxonomy, i.e., to define species boundaries and to associate different developmental stages. We used the general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) model to combine population-and species-level sequence variation of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) to detect species boundaries in Baetidae mayflies (Ephemeroptera). Starting with a database of 240 sequences (57 species), significant clustering of newly sequenced larvae allowed us to establish 1 new species and 1 new combination and to associate adult and larval stages for both. A molecular phylogeny using additional nuclear (18S) and mtDNA (rrnS, rrnL) gene regions recovered the new species and new combination as a monophyletic group, distinct from other Afrotropical lineages. Therefore, we established a new genus, Adnoptilum, endemic to Madagascar. Adnoptilum gen. n. can be distinguished from other species in both the imaginal and adult stages and appears to belong to the Bugilliesia complex. We conclude that routine sampling of population-and species-level genetic diversity, combined with coalescent-based methods of species delineation, has great potential to become a standard procedure for the study of poorly known taxonomic groups. © 2010 The North American Benthological Society.


Sommer R.S.,University of Kiel | Fritz U.,Museum of Zoology | Seppa H.,University of Helsinki | Ekstrom J.,Lund University | And 2 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2011

Faunal communities have been shaped in different ways by past climatic change. The impact of the termination of the last Glacial and the onset of the present (Holocene) Interglacial on large-scale faunal shifts, extinction dynamics and gene pools of species are of special interest in natural sciences. A general pattern of climate-triggered range expansion and local extinction of vertebrate species is known for Europe, and shows that in the modern temperate zone the main faunal change took place mainly during the Late Glacial (14700-11700 years ago) and Early Holocene (11700-9100 years ago). Based on large datasets of new radiocarbon data, we present precise temporal dynamics of climate-driven disappearance and appearance of reindeer and pond turtle in southern Sweden. These two species are significant climate indicators in Late Quaternary biostratigraphy. Our data reveal that the reindeer disappeared from southern Sweden ca. 10300 years ago, whereas the pond turtle colonized the area ca. 9860 years ago, with a 450-year gap between each species. This provides evidence for a sudden environmental turnover, causing the replacement of an arctic faunal element by a thermophilic species. The postglacial range dynamics of pond turtle and reindeer are a unique model case, allowing insights into the faunal turnover of other vertebrates during the last dramatic natural global warming event at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Stuckas H.,Museum of Zoology | Gemel R.,Natural History Museum Vienna | Fritz U.,Museum of Zoology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Pelusios seychellensis is thought to be a freshwater turtle species endemic to the island of Mahé, Seychelles. There are only three museum specimens from the late 19th century known. The species has been never found again, despite intensive searches on Mahé. Therefore, P. seychellensis has been declared as "Extinct" by the IUCN and is the sole putatively extinct freshwater turtle species. Using DNA sequences of three mitochondrial genes of the historical type specimen and phylogenetic analyses including all other species of the genus, we provide evidence that the description of P. seychellensis was erroneously based on a widely distributed West African species, P. castaneus. Consequently, we synonymize the two species and delete P. seychellensis from the list of extinct chelonian species and from the faunal list of the Seychelles. © 2013 Stuckas et al.


Matushkina N.A.,Kyiv National University | Klass K.-D.,Museum of Zoology
International Journal of Odonatology | Year: 2011

The exoskeleton of the female genitalic region in Phenes raptor is described based on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that in this species the pattern of sclerites, articulations, processes, and apodemes is overall the same as i n other ovipositor-bearing Odonata, i.e. Zygoptera, the anisozygopteran Epiophlebia, and the anisopteran Aeshnidae. However, many morphological details differ among all these taxa. Fifty-four characters were scored for P. raptor in order to be included in a previously compiled dataset for phylogenetic analysis of ovipositor-bearing Odonata. These characters include only few specific similarities between P. raptor and either Aeshnidae or Epiophlebia. Instead, P. raptor shows a number of features that are unique among ovipositor-bearing Odonata. Absence of serration on the ovipositor inP. raptor and reduction of the interlocking mechanism connecting the two first valves medially is probably correlated with the endosubstratic egg-laying of the female. The ovipositor bears numerous sensilla of different shape, which probably detect suitable places for oviposition. © 2011 Worldwide Dragonfly Association.


Glaizot O.,Museum of Zoology | Glaizot O.,University of Lausanne | Fumagalli L.,University of Lausanne | Iritano K.,University of Lausanne | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Avian malaria studies have taken a prominent place in different aspects of evolutionary ecology. Despite a recent interest in the role of vectors within the complex interaction system of the malaria parasite, they have largely been ignored in most epidemiological studies. Epidemiology of the disease is however strongly related to the vector's ecology and behaviour, and there is a need for basic investigations to obtain a better picture of the natural associations between Plasmodium lineages, vector species and bird hosts. The aim of the present study was to identify the mosquito species involved in the transmission of the haemosporidian parasites Plasmodium spp. in two wild populations of breeding great tits (Parus major) in western Switzerland. Additionally, we compared Plasmodium lineages, based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequences, between the vertebrate and dipteran hosts, and evaluated the prevalence of the parasite in the mosquito populations. Plasmodium spp. were detected in Culex pipiens only, with an overall 6.6% prevalence. Among the six cytochrome b lineages of Plasmodium identified in the mosquitoes, three were also present in great tits. The results provide evidence for the first time that C. pipiens can act as a natural vector of avian malaria in Europe and yield baseline data for future research on the epidemiology of avian malaria in European countries. © 2012 Glaizot et al.


Based on re-examination of material belonging to the Museum of Zoology, Hamburg University, Germany, especially Georg Ulmer's collection, as well as newly collected specimens from the Sunda Islands, the genuine concept of Compsoneuria Eaton, 1881 is revised. The genus has had as junior synonyms Compsoneuriella Ulmer, 1939 (Oriental) and Notonurus Crass, 1947 (Afrotropical). A recent molecular study removed Notonurus from this synonymy. The type spe-cies of Compsoneuria, Compsoneuria spectabilis Eaton, 1881, is redescribed. A lectotype male imago is designated for Compsoneuriella thienemanni Ulmer, 1939, type species of Compsoneuriella. Based on egg morphology, nymphal stages of both Compsoneuria and Compsoneuriella are unequivocally attributed. The nymph of Compsoneuria spectabilis is de-scribed and corresponds in part to what Ulmer (1939) described as the nymph of Compsoneuriella thienemanni. The latter nymph is also redescribed from material collected recently in Sumatra. Due to the important number of morphological differences between these two species, Compsoneuriella stat. prop. is removed from its synonymy with Compsoneuria. Besides C. thienemanni, the genus Compsoneuriella encompasses C. langensis (Braasch & Boonsoong, 2010) comb. nov. from Thailand and C. tagbanua (Braasch & Freitag, 2008) comb. nov. from the Philippines (Palawan), which is partially redescribed. All other species under the combined concept of Compsoneuria/Compsoneuriella are mentioned and their generic placements are discussed. The new combination Afronurus taipokauensis (Tong & Dudgeon, 2003) comb. nov. from Hong Kong, China is proposed. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press.


The box tree moth, Cydalima perspectalis (Walker, 1859) comb. n., is native to India, China, Korea, Japan and the Russian Far East. Its larvae are a serious pest of different species of Buxus. Recently, C. perspectalis was introduced into Europe and first recorded from Germany in 2006. This species has been placed in various spilomeline genera including Palpita Hübner, 1808, Diaphania Hübner, 1818, Glyphodes Guenée, 1854 and the monotypic Neoglyphodes Streltzov, 2008. In order to solve this nomenclatural confusion and to find a reasonable and verifiable generic placement for the box tree moth, the morphology of the above mentioned and some additional spilomeline taxa was investigated and their phylogeny analysed. The results show that C. perspectalis belongs to a monophylum that includes three of the genera in which it was previously placed: Glyphodes, Diaphania and Palpita. Within this monophylum, it is closely related to the Asian Cydalima Lederer, 1863. As a result of this analysis, Sisyrophora Lederer, 1863 syn. rev. and Neoglyphodes Streltzov, 2008 syn. n. are synonymised with Cydalima Lederer, 1863, and five species are transferred to this genus: Cydalima capriniodes (Hampson, 1912) (Glyphodes) comb. n., Cydalima decipiens (Hampson, 1912) (Glyphodes) comb. n., Cydalima joiceyi (Janse, 1924) (Margaronia) comb. n., Cydalima perspectalis (Walker, 1859) (Phakellura) comb. n. and Cydalima pfeifferae (Lederer, 1863) (Sisyrophora) comb. rev. © 2003 Institute of Entomology.


Cherix D.,Museum of Zoology | Cherix D.,University of Lausanne | Wyss C.,Museum of Zoology | Pape T.,Universitetsparken 15
Forensic Science International | Year: 2012

From 1993 to 2008, criminal investigations were conducted in the western part of Switzerland with special attention to blowfly and flesh fly species in order to estimate the post-mortem interval when requested by the police authorities. Flesh flies were found in only 33 cases out of 160. Five species of the genus . Sarcophaga were identified (. S. africa, . S. argyrostoma, . S. caerulescens, . S. similis and . S. sp.). The main species found on corpses (larval stage) was . S. argyrostoma. The thermal constant (. K) calculated for this species in Switzerland is 380.6. ±. 16.3 (mean. ±. S.D.) degree-days. With the exception of . S. caerulescens, found three times in the larval stage on corpses, the three other species are of minor forensic importance. . S. argyrostoma is found during summer and indoors. This species colonises dead bodies, usually the same day as blowfly species, and it could be used to estimate the post-mortem interval. Other species are discussed in the light of current knowledge on their biology and ecology. It is recommended that voucher material be deposited in a museum, allowing further studies by relevant specialists, thereby helping investigators and avoiding misidentifications. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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