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Townsville, Australia

Eighteen new species in Pentaceration Just, 2009 (Isopoda, Paramunnidae) are described. From the Arafura Sea: Penta-ceration bifida; from south eastern Australia: P. bovicornis, P. denticornis, P. globopleonis, P. lancifera, P. magna, P. meg-alomos, P. omalos, P. rihothalassa, P. serrata, P. simplex, P. tasmaniensis; from New Zealand: P. curvicornis, P. dentifera, P. novaezealandia, P. epipedos, P. setosa; from the Kermadec Trench: P. kermadecia. A key to the 20 known species of Pentaceration is given. Pentaceration is the most diverse genus in the Paramunnidae and has the greatest depth range (7 to 5340 meters). The general distribution of the genus and the presence of species with functional eyes at shelf depth (all other species blind) suggest a shallow water Gondwana origin.

Parra G.J.,Flinders University | Parra G.J.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | Corkeron P.J.,Bioacoustics Research Program | Arnold P.,Museum of Tropical Queensland
Animal Behaviour | Year: 2011

Dolphins live in complex social systems with a wide variety of grouping and association patterns. Understanding the spatiotemporal variation of these associations (fission-fusion dynamics) is necessary to investigate the underlying factors and mechanisms shaping mammalian social systems in aquatic environments. We used boat-based surveys, photoidentification, focal observations, association analyses and social network techniques to quantify variation in the grouping patterns and fission-fusion dynamics of small, sympatric populations of Australian snubfin dolphins, Orcaella heinsohni, and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, Sousa chinensis, off the northeast coast of Queensland. Schools of snubfin dolphins were larger and more stable, irrespective of behavioural activity, than those of humpback dolphins. While associations of both species showed nonrandom patterns and structure, the social network of snubfin dolphins was characterized by numerous strong associations, whereas the strength of the humpback dolphin's social network did not differ from random. Modelling of temporal patterns of association indicated long-lasting associations were an important feature of snubfin dolphins' fission-fusion dynamics. In contrast, associations among humpback dolphins over time were best described by short-term relationships. The contrasting grouping and fission-fusion dynamics of snubfin and humpback dolphins appear to be a response to different feeding habits and prey availability. Future studies involving molecular techniques and direct quantification of food availability and predation risk will help elucidate the suite of interacting ecological, social and evolutionary factors shaping their social structures. © 2011 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

Tilbrook K.J.,Museum of Tropical Queensland
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

Larval type, larval morphology, ancestrular morphology and colony astogeny have great systematic value in the cheilostomate bryozoans, but for most species these characters are undocumented. Whilst most cheilostomate bryozoan species produce lecithotrophic coronate larvae; a minority of species produce planktotrophic cyphonautes larvae, all belonging to genera within the superfamily Membraniporoidea. Biflustra laboriosa Tilbrook, 2006 nominally belongs to a membraniporid genus whose species are otherwise characterised by having a twinned ancestrula. The production of a single ancestrula from a cyphonautes larva and overall zooidal morphology excludes B. laboriosa from the Membraniporidae and its zooidal characters are alien to any other membraniporoidean genus. Accordingly, Tarsocryptus n. gen. is erected to accommodate it, resulting in the new combination Tarsocryptus laboriosa n. comb. Its reassignment here to the membraniporoidean Electridae is tentative. © 2011 Magnolia Press.

Biofouling of international marine vessels is one of the most important mechanisms for the transfer of nonnative- invasive species around the world. Bryozoan species are some of the commonest of these marine biofouling organisms found worldwide. Whilst some efforts have been made to document the bryozoan species in Australian ports, these surveys are very limited in number, poorly resolved and lack repetition. This paper records two invasive bryozoan species new to Australian waters (Hippoporina indica and Biflustra grandicella), and a northerly range extension of a known invasive bryozoan (Zoobotryon verticillatum). © 2012 Check List and Authors.

Wallace C.C.,Museum of Tropical Queensland | Bosellini F.R.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology | Year: 2014

Four new species and new records for six species of the highly successful reef-building coral genus Acropora are described from Oligocene and Early Miocene (Rupelian to Burdigalian) localities in Europe. Acropora slovenica sp. nov. is described from Slovenia (Gornji Grad beds); A. piedmontensis sp. nov. and A. macrocalyx sp. nov. from the Torino Hills (Piedmont), and A. salentina sp. nov. from the Salento Peninsula (Apulia) of Italy. The remaining six species have an Eocene lineage. From south-west France, A. anglica and A. bartonensis, previously known from England (Priabonian and Bartonian), are recorded: A. anglica in Oligocene (Chattian) and both in Miocene (Aquitanian) deposits, indicating their persistence in the western Tethys for up to 17 and 20 million years respectively. Also recorded from Aquitaine is A. wilsonae (type locality Eocene Paris Basin), indicating persistence in western France for up to 28 million years. Italian material includes A. proteacea, also known from the Lower Bartonian of France and A. lavandulina, already known from Italy and the Eocene of France. From Slovenia (Oligocene, Rupelian), A. haidingeri is recorded, including from the type locality. The species are interpreted as representing seven extant species groups previously documented from the Eocene of Europe and the first records for two further extant groups. These results complement a previous finding of Eocene diversification of Acropora into the beginnings of up to 10 of the 20 recognized modern species groups in England and France. They indicate that the longevity of some Eocene taxa was extended into the Oligocene to Early Miocene of Europe and allowed some turnover, probably associated with changes in configuration of the western Tethys Sea. This information is important for interpreting molecular phylogenies and the evolution of modern Acropora diversity, by providing extended stratigraphical ranges for species groups with Eocene origins and dates of origination for two groups previously unrecorded in the early fossil record. © 2014 The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London.

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