Museum of Tropical Queensland

Townsville, Australia

Museum of Tropical Queensland

Townsville, Australia
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Tilbrook K.J.,Museum of Tropical Queensland
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

Larval type, larval morphology, ancestrular morphology and colony astogeny have great systematic value in the cheilostomate bryozoans, but for most species these characters are undocumented. Whilst most cheilostomate bryozoan species produce lecithotrophic coronate larvae; a minority of species produce planktotrophic cyphonautes larvae, all belonging to genera within the superfamily Membraniporoidea. Biflustra laboriosa Tilbrook, 2006 nominally belongs to a membraniporid genus whose species are otherwise characterised by having a twinned ancestrula. The production of a single ancestrula from a cyphonautes larva and overall zooidal morphology excludes B. laboriosa from the Membraniporidae and its zooidal characters are alien to any other membraniporoidean genus. Accordingly, Tarsocryptus n. gen. is erected to accommodate it, resulting in the new combination Tarsocryptus laboriosa n. comb. Its reassignment here to the membraniporoidean Electridae is tentative. © 2011 Magnolia Press.

Eighteen new species in Pentaceration Just, 2009 (Isopoda, Paramunnidae) are described. From the Arafura Sea: Penta-ceration bifida; from south eastern Australia: P. bovicornis, P. denticornis, P. globopleonis, P. lancifera, P. magna, P. meg-alomos, P. omalos, P. rihothalassa, P. serrata, P. simplex, P. tasmaniensis; from New Zealand: P. curvicornis, P. dentifera, P. novaezealandia, P. epipedos, P. setosa; from the Kermadec Trench: P. kermadecia. A key to the 20 known species of Pentaceration is given. Pentaceration is the most diverse genus in the Paramunnidae and has the greatest depth range (7 to 5340 meters). The general distribution of the genus and the presence of species with functional eyes at shelf depth (all other species blind) suggest a shallow water Gondwana origin.

Parra G.J.,Flinders University | Parra G.J.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | Corkeron P.J.,Bioacoustics Research Program | Arnold P.,Museum of Tropical Queensland
Animal Behaviour | Year: 2011

Dolphins live in complex social systems with a wide variety of grouping and association patterns. Understanding the spatiotemporal variation of these associations (fission-fusion dynamics) is necessary to investigate the underlying factors and mechanisms shaping mammalian social systems in aquatic environments. We used boat-based surveys, photoidentification, focal observations, association analyses and social network techniques to quantify variation in the grouping patterns and fission-fusion dynamics of small, sympatric populations of Australian snubfin dolphins, Orcaella heinsohni, and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, Sousa chinensis, off the northeast coast of Queensland. Schools of snubfin dolphins were larger and more stable, irrespective of behavioural activity, than those of humpback dolphins. While associations of both species showed nonrandom patterns and structure, the social network of snubfin dolphins was characterized by numerous strong associations, whereas the strength of the humpback dolphin's social network did not differ from random. Modelling of temporal patterns of association indicated long-lasting associations were an important feature of snubfin dolphins' fission-fusion dynamics. In contrast, associations among humpback dolphins over time were best described by short-term relationships. The contrasting grouping and fission-fusion dynamics of snubfin and humpback dolphins appear to be a response to different feeding habits and prey availability. Future studies involving molecular techniques and direct quantification of food availability and predation risk will help elucidate the suite of interacting ecological, social and evolutionary factors shaping their social structures. © 2011 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

Wallace C.C.,Museum of Tropical Queensland
Geologica Belgica | Year: 2012

The scleractinian family Acroporidae reaches its greatest diversity in the Indo-Pacific region, where it has six extant genera and around 250 valid species, and dominates coral species composition on many reefs. Only one genus, Acropora, represented by only two species, survives in the Caribbean, although at least four other genera, Astreopora, Alveopora, Dendracis and Isopora are present in the Caribbean fossil record. Using fossil specimens from museum collections, this study reviews the Caribbean genera and species of Acroporidae and their relevance to the evolution and biogeography of the family. Two turnover periods (late Oligocene/early Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene) have been recognised as major influences on the post-Tethyan fossil history of Caribbean reef-building Scleractinia. Because of the importance of Acroporidae in the Indo-Pacific today, the successive origination and loss of taxa as well as unique taxon characteristics in the Caribbean setting are of interest in assessing the challenges faced by extant taxa under a regime of global climate change.

Biofouling of international marine vessels is one of the most important mechanisms for the transfer of nonnative- invasive species around the world. Bryozoan species are some of the commonest of these marine biofouling organisms found worldwide. Whilst some efforts have been made to document the bryozoan species in Australian ports, these surveys are very limited in number, poorly resolved and lack repetition. This paper records two invasive bryozoan species new to Australian waters (Hippoporina indica and Biflustra grandicella), and a northerly range extension of a known invasive bryozoan (Zoobotryon verticillatum). © 2012 Check List and Authors.

Muir P.R.,Museum of Tropical Queensland | Wallace C.C.,Museum of Tropical Queensland | Done T.,Museum of Tropical Queensland | Done T.,Australian Institute of Marine Science | And 2 more authors.
Science | Year: 2015

An analysis of present-day global depth distributions of reef-building corals and underlying environmental drivers contradicts a commonly held belief that ocean warming will promote tropical coral expansion into temperate latitudes. Using a global data set of a major group of reef corals, we found that corals were confined to shallower depths at higher latitudes (up to 0.6 meters of predicted shallowing per additional degree of latitude). Latitudinal attenuation of the most important driver of this phenomenon-the dose of photosynthetically available radiation over winter-would severely constrain latitudinal coral range extension in response to ocean warming. Latitudinal gradients in species richness for the group also suggest that higher winter irradiance at depth in low latitudes allowed a deep-water fauna that was not viable at higher latitudes.

Benzoni F.,University of Milan Bicocca | Stefani F.,University of Milan Bicocca | Pichon M.,Museum of Tropical Queensland | Galli P.,University of Milan Bicocca
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2010

The morphometric and molecular boundaries between twelve Psammocora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) nominal species were addressed. The type specimens of Psammocora haimianaMilne Edwards & Haime, 1851, P. togianensisUmbgrove, 1940, P. foliumUmbgrove, 1939, P. digitataMilne Edwards & Haime, 1851, Maeandroseris australiaeRousseau, 1854, P. samoensisHoffmeister, 1925, P. superficialisGardiner, 1898, P. profundacellaGardiner, 1898, P. nierstrasziVan der Horst, 1921, P. verrilliVaughan, 1907, and P. albopictaBenzoni, 2006, were analysed together with specimens from museum collections, including those depicted in widely cited taxonomic descriptions, and material collected for this study in different parts of the Indo-Pacific. Morphometric analyses of the dimensions of skeletal structures allowed the identification of groups of specimens with similar morphologies. Congruency between these groups and current species whose synonymies and descriptions were found in recent taxonomic references was, hence, investigated and the species revised. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships of a representative subset of specimens were reconstructed based on rDNA and COI, thus allowing a direct link between morphologic and genetic information. Incongruence between type of morphology and literature descriptions was evidenced for some widely recognised species. Based on this integrated approach, five species were unambiguously identified. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London.

Geographically widespread material originally assigned to the Floridan species Bryopesanser pesanseris (Smitt, 1873) was thoroughly examined and found to mask a hitherto unknown diversity. Smitt's (1873) species has previously been noted as "well-known and widely distributed" but this is not the case. This paper reviews the species previously assigned to Bryopesanser Tilbrook, 2006 (B. pesanseris, B. capitaneus, B. grandicella, and B. latesco) and describes 11 new species (B. tonsillorum n. sp., B. gardineri n. sp., B. puncturella n. sp., B. thricyng n. sp., B. ascendosolaris n. sp., B. ecphymatotes n. sp., B. hebelomaia n. sp., B. lobiones n. sp., B. crebricollis n. sp., B. baderae n. sp., B. tiara n. sp.). All the Bryopesanser species are, to a greater or lesser extent, geographically limited in their distribution. However, two species are more widespread than the rest and truly Indo-Pacific in their distribution: B. latesco is recorded from the Red Sea, across the Indo-Pacific to the Caribbean coast of Panama; B. tonsillorum n.sp. is even more broadly distributed, from Sri Lanka and Indonesia to the Pacific coast of Colombia and also West Africa. Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press.

Six new species of Rhinoecetes Just, 1983, R. rhinoceros, R. dinoceros, R. brevirostris, R. coclearis, R. albomaculosus andR. meridianus, are described together with Cephaloecetes enigmaticus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Neoecetes conipes gen. nov., sp. nov. from eastern Australia from Moreton Bay in Queensland to Bass Strait and Tasmania. Cephaloecetes gen. nov. differs from Rhinoecetes by having the head front margin entire and a pseudorostrum arising underneath from the frons. Neoecetes gen. nov. differs from Rhinoecetes in having two robust setae instead of one on the posterior projection of gnathopod 2 carpus, a row of small accessory robust setae on pereopods 5 and 6 carpus instead of a single one, and uropod 3 ramus being conical instead of round. Keys to genera and species are given. A novel character, a pair of sternal papillae, is documented in Rhinoecetes and Cephaloecetes on the ventral surface of pereonite 7 in adult females. The distribution of the species is commented upon. The most diverse fauna of Siphonoecetini was found in Jervis Bay, New South Wales. Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press.

Tilbrook K.J.,Museum of Tropical Queensland | Vieira L.M.,University of Sao Paulo
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

Among the Scrupocellaria species previously reported from Queensland, three are here redescribed - S. cervicornis, S. curvata and S. diadema; two other species, S. frondis and S. sinuosa, are recorded from the area for the first time; three new species, S. hamata n. sp., S. prolata n. sp. and S. peltata n. sp., are also described, and the remainder are discussed. The need for the re-examination of specimens assigned to this genus is highlighted. The geographic range of some Scrupo-cellaria species is far more limited than once thought.© 2012 Magnolia Press.

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