Miskelly C.M.,Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa |
Powlesland R.G.,606 Manaroa Road
Notornis | Year: 2013
Translocations (deliberate movement and release of wildlife) have been of crucial importance in the management of New Zealand threatened birds, and as part of site restoration projects.We review attempts to translocate New Zealand birds for conservation reasons since 1863.Following an early pulse from 1895-1908, there was concerted and increasing effort (both in the number of translocations and the number of taxa translocated) and success since the early 1960s.Sixty-eight taxa (55 species) of New Zealand birds have been translocated in over 1100 separate releases, with new populations of 50 taxa (41 species) successfully established.Translocations of 9 further taxa (7 further species) are in progress.Overall, 61% of New Zealand's extant endemic waterfowl, shorebird and landbird taxa have been translocated (51% of the total successfully, with an additional 4% in progress).Five taxa exist solely as translocated populations (little spotted kiwi Apteryx owenii, buff weka Gallirallus australis hectori, kakapo Strigops habroptilus, South Island saddleback Philesturnus carunculatus and black robin Petroica traversi), and 10 further taxa would be confined to single wild populations but for successful translocations.Most translocations were undertaken within historical ranges, however, 6 taxa have been established beyond their historical ranges, with attempts for 2 further taxa in progress.© The Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Inc.
Amplified fragment length polymorphism data reveal a history of auto- and allopolyploidy in New Zealand endemic species of Plantago (Plantaginaceae): New perspectives on a taxonomically challenging group
Meudt H.M.,Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa |
Meudt H.M.,Victoria University of Wellington
International Journal of Plant Sciences | Year: 2011
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data were generated for most of the ∼12 species and subspecies of endemic New Zealand Plantago (Plantaginaceae) to test species boundaries and interpret polyploidy origins. Phylogenetic, network, principal-coordinates, structure, and quantitative analyses of the AFLP data were generally congruent and complementary regarding the main lineages, and the incongruences allowed some inferences of alloploidy and hybridization. Within the largely diploid group III, P. novae-zelandiae, P. lanigera, P. obconica, and P. aucklandica were genetically distinct. Within group II, there was little genetic differentiation between octoploids P. masoniae and P. triandra, and multiple alloploid origins were inferred for decaploid and dodecaploid cytotypes of P. unibracteata. Within group I, the 16-ploid P. sp. "Sylvester" is suggested to be an autoploid of octoploid P. raoulii, octoploid P. picta is clearly a genetically distinct entity, and species boundaries of octoploids P. raoulii, P. spathulata, and P. aff. spathulata are unclear. Additional genetic and molecular cytogenetic studies on New Zealand species and their close relatives from Australia and southern South America are needed to further investigate polyploid origins. AFLP is a useful tool for elucidating the origins and evolutionary history of closely related polyploid species in taxonomically challenging groups such as endemic New Zealand Plantago. © 2011 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.
Tennyson A.J.D.,Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
New Zealand Journal of Ecology | Year: 2010
Since the 1980s, morphological and molecular research has resulted in significant advances in understanding the relationships and origins of the recent terrestrial vertebrate fauna in the New Zealand biogeographic region. This research has led to many taxonomic changes, with a significant increase in the number of bird and reptile species recognised. It has also resulted in the recognition of several more Holocene (<10 000 years ago) bird species extinctions. The conclusion that Holocene extinctions were primarily caused by human-hunting and predation by other introduced mammals (particularly rats and cats) has been supported by new data. Despite many local eradications of introduced pests, the number of introduced species has increased, with the establishment of five more foreign birds and (on Norfolk Island) the house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus). Many new, significant New Zealand vertebrate fossils have been reported, including more dinosaurs from the Cretaceous, and the first Tertiary records of frogs, rhynchocephalids, lizards, crocodylians, bats and a terrestrial "Mesozoic ghost" mammal from the Early Miocene near St Bathans. For birds, the earliest known penguins in the world have been discovered, and there are intriguing Late Cretaceous - Early Paleocene remains still awaiting detailed description. Other significant Tertiary bird fossils reported include a rich avifauna from the Early Miocene St Bathans sites and a small terrestrial fauna from the Early Pleistocene near Marton. In line with the traditional theory, new research has supported the vicariant Gondwanan origin of some distinctive New Zealand terrestrial vertebrates, such as leiopelmatid frogs, tuatara and moa, and the immigration of many others, including New Zealand wattlebirds and piopio, during the Cenozoic. Extinctions caused by an asteroid impact and climate fluctuations probably explain the absence of many groups, such as crocodylians, dinosaurs, monotremes, palaelodids and swiftlets, from the modern fauna. © New Zealand Ecological Society.
Albach D.C.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz |
Meudt H.M.,Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2010
The cosmopolitan and ecologically diverse genus Veronica with approximately 450 species is the largest genus of the newly circumscribed Plantaginaceae. Previous analyses of Veronica DNA sequences were in stark contrast to traditional systematics. However, analyses did not allow many inferences regarding the relationship between major groups identified, hindering further analysis of diversification and evolutionary trends in the genus. To resolve the backbone relationships of Veronica, we added sequences from additional plastid DNA regions to existing data and analyzed matching data sets for 78 taxa and more than 5000 aligned characters from nuclear ribosomal DNA and plastid DNA regions. The results provide the best resolved and supported estimate of relationships among major groups in the Northern (Veronica s. str.) and Southern Hemisphere (hebes). We present new informal names for the five main species groups within the Southern Hemisphere sect. Hebe. Furthermore, in two instances we provide morphological and karyological characters supporting these relationships. Finally, we present the first evidence from nuclear low-copy CYCLOIDEA2-region to compare results from the plastid genome with the nuclear genome. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shepherd L.D.,Massey University |
Perrie L.R.,Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2011
Although New Zealand is a biodiversity hotspot, there has been little genetic investigation of why so many of its threatened and uncommon plants have naturally disjunct distributions. We investigated the small tree Pseudopanax ferox (Araliaceae), which has a widespread but highly disjunct lowland distribution within New Zealand. Genotyping of nuclear microsatellites and a chloroplast locus revealed pronounced genetic differentiation and four principal genetic clusters. Our results indicate that the disjunct distribution is a product of vicariance rather than long-distance dispersal. This highlights the need to preserve multiple populations when disjunct distributions are the result of vicariance, rather than focusing conservation efforts on a core area, in order to retain as much as possible of a species' evolutionary legacy and potential. Additionally, based on our genetic findings and the ecology of P. ferox, we hypothesize that it was more continuously distributed during the drier (but not maximally colder) interstadials of glacial periods and/or on the fertile soils available immediately postglacial. We further hypothesize that P. ferox belongs to a suite of species of drought-prone and/or fertile habitats whose distributions are actually restricted during warmer and wetter interglacial periods, despite being principally of the lowlands. Our genetic data for P. ferox are also the first consistent with the survival during the Last Glacial Maxima of a lowland tree at high latitudes in the south-eastern South Island. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Miskelly C.M.,Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
Notornis | Year: 2012
The South Island snipe (Coenocorypha iredalei) was described by Walter Rothschild in 1921 based on 3 specimens collected on Jacky Lee I, of Stewart I, in 1897 & 1898 and purchased from Henry Travers. The last 3 birds were seen 43 years later on Big South Cape I, and the species is considered extinct following introductions of weka (Gallirallus australis) or ship rats (Ratus ratus) to its 2 last strongholds. I surveyed surviving museum skins, literature, and personal accounts of the South Island snipe, including a previously unpublished account from the type locality, to learn more of the bird's discovery and extinction. Seven only of the 24 known specimens had correct locality data associated with them; as a result, many were assumed until recently to be Snares Island snipe (C. huegeli). Based on specimen records, historic correspondence, and forensic examination of specimen labels, I conclude that Henry Travers never visited Jacky Lee I, and that the unknown collector of the type specimens of C. iredalei also collected bird specimens from Rangatira I in the Chatham Is in 1899 and 1900. © The Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Inc.
Palma R.L.,Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
Zootaxa | Year: 2012
I describe and illustrate three new species of chewing lice in the genus Saemundssonia, collected from seabirds in New Zealand, the Galápagos and other islands of the Pacific Ocean. They are: Saemundssonia (Saemundssonia) albatrossa n. sp. from Phoebetria palpebrata, Thalassarche chrysostoma, and Thalassarche impavida; Saemundssonia (Saemundssonia) creagrusa n. sp. from Creagrus furcatus; and Saemundssonia (Saemundssonia) gygisa n. sp. from Gygis alba candida. Copyright © 2012 Magnolia Press.
Walton K.,Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
New Zealand Journal of Zoology | Year: 2016
Hygromia cinctella is a medium-sized, pulmonate land snail native to the Mediterranean region and is undergoing rapid range expansion in Europe. Several living specimens were collected from an urban garden in the Wellington suburb of Brooklyn in 2015 and 2016, and constitute the first records of this species from New Zealand. Searches in surrounding suburbs have so far failed to find further snails. Eradication from Brooklyn may be viable but it seems likely that the species occurs elsewhere and the potential threat it poses to native species and agriculture, should it become established in New Zealand, appears low. © 2016 The Royal Society of New Zealand
Marshall B.A.,Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
Molluscan Research | Year: 2011
A freshwater limpet, Latia manuherikia n. sp., is described from lacustrine beds of the Early-Middle Miocene lower Bannockburn Formation (Manuherikia Group), near St Bathans, Central Otago, southern New Zealand. The new species is the first fossil record of Latia, as well as the first record of the genus from the South Island. Latia is closely related to South American genus Chilina Gray, 1828, and the two groups presumably have a vicariant Gondwanan origin. © 2011 Malacological Society of Australasia & Society for the Study of Molluscan Diversity.
Palma R.L.,Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
Zootaxa | Year: 2011
I describe and illustrate five new species of chewing lice in the genus Halipeurus, parasitic on petrels from the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans. They are: Halipeurus confusus n. sp. from Pterodroma nigripennis; H. pricei n. sp. from Pterodroma brevipes and Pt. leucoptera; H. atlanticus n. sp. from Pterodroma cahow and Pt. madeira; H. pelagodromae n. sp. from five subspecies of Pelagodroma marina; and H. vincesmithi n. sp. from Oceanodroma matsudairae. I discuss the morphological similarities of the currently recognised subgenera of Halipeurus and propose to synonymise them-Synnautes Thompson, 1936 and AnamiasTimmermann, 1965-under the nominate subgenus. I propose two new synonymies at species level: Halipeurus sawadai Nakagawa, 1959 and Halipeurus angusticeps fosteri Edwards, 1961 both as junior synonyms of Halipeurus angusticeps (Piaget, 1880). Also, I propose to merge H. subclavus Timmermann, 1961 and Halipeurus spadix Timmermann, 1961 as subspecies of H. spadix. I report several new host-louse records for other Halipeurus species, and present additional information and illustrations for H. raphanus Timmermann, 1961, H. fallacis Timmermann, 1960, H. nesofregettae Timmermann, 1961 and H. spadix subclavus Timmermann, 1961 based on their type material and other specimens. Lectotypes of Lipeurus pelagicus Denny, 1842 and Lipeurus languidus Kellogg & Kuwana, 1902 are designated. Copyright © 2011 - Magnolia Press.