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Ono J.,Chiba University | Yong J.W.H.,Singapore University of Technology and Design | Takayama K.,Museum of Natural and Environmental History | Saleh M.N.B.,University Putra Malaysia | And 13 more authors.
Conservation Genetics | Year: 2016

Bruguiera hainesii (Rhizophoraceae) is one of the two Critically Endangered mangrove species listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Although the species is vulnerable to extinction, its genetic diversity and the evolutionary relationships with other Bruguiera species are not well understood. Also, intermediate morphological characters imply that the species might be of hybrid origin. To clarify the genetic relationship between B. hainesii and other Bruguiera species, we conducted molecular analyses including all six Bruguiera species using DNA sequences of two nuclear genes (CesA and UNK) and three chloroplast regions (intergenic spacer regions of trnL-trnF, trnS-trnG and atpB-rbcL). For nuclear DNA markers, all nine B. hainesii samples from five populations were heterozygous at both loci, with one allele was shared with B. cylindrica, and the other with B. gymnorhiza. For chloroplast DNA markers, the two haplotypes found in B. hainesii were shared only by B. cylindrica. These results suggested that B. hainesii is a hybrid between B. cylindrica as the maternal parent and B. gymnorhiza as the paternal one. Furthermore, chloroplast DNA haplotypes found in B. hainesii suggest that hybridization has occurred independently in regions where the distribution ranges of the parental species meet. As the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species currently excludes hybrids (except for apomictic plant hybrids), the conservation status of B. hainesii should be reconsidered. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source

Kusaka S.,Museum of Natural and Environmental History | Uno K.T.,Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory | Nakano T.,Humanity | Nakatsukasa M.,Kyoto University | Cerling T.E.,University of Utah
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2015

Objective: Archaeological remains strongly suggest that the Holocene Japanese hunter-gatherers, the Jomon people, utilized terrestrial plants as their primary food source. However, carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of bone collagen indicates that they primarily exploited marine resources. We hypothesize that this inconsistency stems from the route of protein synthesis and the different proportions of protein-derived carbon in tooth enamel versus bone collagen. Carbon isotope ratios from bone collagen reflect that of dietary protein and may provide a biased signal of diet, whereas isotope ratios from tooth enamel reflect the integrated diet from all macronutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins). Methods: In order to evaluate the differences in inferred diet between the archaeological evidence and bone collagen isotope data, this study investigated carbon isotopes in Jomon tooth enamel from four coastal sites of the Middle to Late-Final Jomon period (5,000-2,300 years BP). Results: Carbon isotope ratios of human teeth are as depleted as coeval terrestrial mammals, suggesting that C3 plants and terrestrial mammals were major dietary resources for the Jomon people. Dietary dependence on marine resources calculated from enamel was significantly lower than that calculated from bone collagen. The discrepancy in isotopic ratios between enamel and collagen and the nitrogen isotope ratio in collagen shows a negative correlation on individual and population levels, suggesting diets with variable proportions of terrestrial and marine resources. Conclusion: This study highlights the usefulness of coupling tooth enamel and bone collagen in carbon isotopic studies to reconstruct prehistoric human diet. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Hoese D.F.,College St | Shibukawa K.,Museum of Natural and Environmental History | Johnson J.W.,Ichthyology
Zootaxa | Year: 2016

Tomiyamichthys levisquama is described as a new species from the Northern Territory and Queensland, Australia from estuaries and soft bottom marine environments. It is distinctive in body and head shape, head coloration and by the absence of ctenoid scales on the body. It is compared with the related species Tomiyamichthys russus (Cantor 1849), which has ctenoid scales on the posterior part of the body. The validity of the name Tomiyamichthys over Flabelligobius is discussed, with both genera being described in the same paper, here accepting Tomiyamichthys as the appropriate name. © Copyright 2016 Magnolia Press. Source

Inoue M.N.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Inoue M.N.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Saito-Morooka F.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Saito-Morooka F.,Ibaraki University | And 8 more authors.
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2015

In the last 30 years some limited successes in alien ant control have been documented globally, and control programs remain challenging. Moreover, the potential non-target impacts of toxicants have not been well studied. We assessed the efficacy and non-target effects of multiple products containing the active compound fipronil in the attempted control of two populations of the invasive Argentine ant Linepithema humile (Mayr) in Tokyo, Japan. Three treatments were conducted: control, low-dose treatment (0.1 g/ha per treatment), and high-dose treatment (0.2 g/ha). Treatments were applied once per month for 11 months. The abundance of L. humile declined rapidly by up to 99.8 % in treated areas, but remained at extremely high densities in the control area. The treatments had few negative non-target effects, with the abundances of native ant species and other ground-dwelling invertebrates except for cockroaches being greater in the treated areas after L. humile suppression. Thus, fipronil is an effective compound for controlling L. humile and can be used with minimal toxic effects on non-target organisms. The treatments cost approximately US$ 575/ha for the low-dose treatment and US$ 1250/ha for the high-dose treatment. Our research supports the creation of more ambitious invasive ant management projects. © 2015, The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology. Source

Kitagawa J.,Fukui Prefectural Satoyama Satoumi Research Institute | Morita Y.,Okayama University of Science | Makohonienko M.,Adam Mickiewicz University | Gotanda K.,Chiba University of Commerce | And 4 more authors.
Vegetation History and Archaeobotany | Year: 2016

Akita-sugi (Cryptomeria japonica, Japanese cedar that is grown in Akita) forests are among the most important for commercially valuable timber in Japan. Historically, these forests have been severely exploited, although now some parts of them are conserved. It is important to know the detailed history of the forests in order to utilize them sustainably in the future. This study analyzes the pollen in an annually laminated lake sediment core from Ichi-no-Megata on the Oga peninsula, Akita, Japan, to understand the history of Akita-sugi cedar forests. An age-depth model was developed based on the results of an accelerator mass spectrometer dating of 13 plant macrofossils from the surface to 422 cm in depth, the Towada-a tephra and other well-known event layers. The dominant pollen taxa were Cryptomeria and Fagus crenata by ad 1000. The first increase of Cryptomeria was detected around 1700 bc. By the 1st century ad, Cryptomeria forest was established. At that time, Cryptomeria was mixed with deciduous trees, mainly F. crenata. The pollen analysis found evidence that the main loss of woodland occurred during the 11th century ad, when forest lands were cleared for agriculture. Substantial natural forests nevertheless remained until the 16th century, after which forest resources were exhausted. Conservation and plantation activities took place later, but human activity in response to severe famines prevented the recovery of the forests. After the famine periods, the remaining forests recovered to their previous condition, but after World War II, the natural forests shrank further and plantation forests without deciduous trees were established over large areas. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

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