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Beaumont J.,University of Bradford | Geber J.,Queens University of Belfast | Powers N.,Museum of London Archaeology | Wilson A.,University of Bradford | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Historical evidence documents mass migration from Ireland to London during the period of the Great Irish Famine of 1845-52. The rural Irish were reliant on a restricted diet based on potatoes but maize, a C4 plant, was imported from the United States of America in 1846-47 to mitigate against Famine. In London, Irish migrants joined a population with a more varied diet. To investigate and characterize their diet, carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were obtained from bone collagen of 119 and hair keratin of six individuals from Lukin Street cemetery, Tower Hamlets (1843-54), and bone collagen of 20 individuals from the cemetery at Kilkenny Union Workhouse in Ireland (1847-51). A comparison of the results with other contemporaneous English populations suggests that Londoners may have elevated δ15N compared with their contemporaries in other cities. In comparison, the Irish group have lower δ15N. Hair analysis combined with bone collagen allows the reconstruction of perimortem dietary changes. Three children aged 5-15 years from Kilkenny have bone collagen δ13C values that indicate consumption of maize (C4). As maize was only imported into Ireland in quantity from late 1846 and 1847, these results demonstrate relatively rapid bone collagen turnover in children and highlight the importance of age-related bone turnover rates, and the impact the age of the individual can have on studies of short-term dietary change or recent migration. Stable light isotope data in this study are consistent with the epigraphic and documentary evidence for the presence of migrants within the London cemetery. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Morris J.,Museum of London Archaeology
Environmental Archaeology

The following paper presents the results from two surveys of zooarchaeologists involved with commercial work in the United Kingdom. The surveys had a number of aims: they investigated the demographic of commercial zooarchaeologists; their relationship with organisations; the information they produce; how the current recession is affecting their work and what their priorities for help would be. The main survey was carried out during March-April 2009 with a further follow-up survey conducted during August. The surveys indicate that the demographic of zooarchaeologists varies from that of archaeologists in the United Kingdom as a whole. It also shows that the economic recession is affecting commercial zooarchaeologists in a number of ways. The paper also discusses the general structure and nature of the profession. © 2010 Maney Publishing. Source

A browser extension being developed for Chrome and Firefox will let Web users create VPN-like connections to the Internet by routing all their traffic through a friend's trusted connection. Consumer VPNs—like the CryptoSeal service that shut down due to fears over government snooping—let users create secure connections to a VPN provider's data center. The user's traffic is sent to the rest of the Internet only after it gets encrypted and pushed through the VPN service. The new "uProxy" will work in a similar way except that your traffic is routed through a friend's secure connection before traveling to the rest of the Internet. Both you and your friend would need to have a browser extension installed and running for it to work. You could also use uProxy to route traffic through your home Internet connection when you're out of the house and on a public Wi-Fi network. "uProxy routes one user's connection to the Internet via a friend they trust," the makers of the technology explain on its website. "Both users have to have uProxy installed. uProxy is intended to allow one user, with a safer and more secure connection to the Internet, to share their connection to the Internet with trusted friends and family, or even with themselves when they travel. By encrypting the connection between the two users, uProxy makes it much harder for an intermediate step on the journey to watch, block, or misdirect traffic." uProxy would also help users find other uProxy users through chat services like Facebook or Google Hangouts. The site notes that uProxy "is not designed to be an anonymizing service. Services like Tor provide a much stronger guarantee that a user's IP address is hidden from the target site as well as intermediaries. uProxy does not provide such a guarantee." The proxy is only for Web traffic and thus does not affect file sharing tools like torrent clients. uProxy is being developed by the University of Washington and Brave New Software, with funding from Google Ideas. Chrome and Firefox are the first browsers it will come to. For now, it's in a limited release and you can apply for access here. A Google Ideas event yesterday also spotlighted a new tool for protecting websites from DDoS attacks and a "Digital Attack Map" that tracks DDoS attacks in real time. "Many websites face targeted digital attacks by people who aim to silence their speech. This tool and visualization specifically surfaces anonymous traffic data related to these attacks, letting people explore historic trends and see related news reportage of outages happening on a given day," Google said.

Fothergill B.T.,University of Leicester | Thomas R.,University of Leicester | Morris J.,Museum of London Archaeology
International Journal of Paleopathology

In this paper we call attention to the first recorded archaeological examples of avian tibial dyschondroplasia. This condition is identified in three turkey (Meleagris gallopavo L. 1758) tibiotarsi from the Royal London Hospital site in London, UK. The lesions are described, radiographed and differentially diagnosed. Recognition of this condition testifies to the pace of breed development in the 19th-century and the unintended health consequences of 'improvement'. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Ganiaris H.,Museum of London | Barham L.,Museum of London Archaeology | Goodman L.,Museum of London Archaeology
Journal of the Institute of Conservation

Selected archaeological iron from waterlogged contexts excavated from London sites in the 1980s and 1990s was assessed to look at the effects on its condition of desiccated storage without treatment. Data from iron examined in previous surveys were reviewed in the context of this new assessment. This research demonstrates that, although some low level corrosion is realistically to be expected, the iron was in good condition. This may be partly due to low chloride content, as well as desiccated storage and supportive packing. Current research in a number of institutions continues to look at optimum approaches to treatment and storage of iron, and their relative benefits. It was decided that desiccated storage of iron rather than treatment should continue but the approach remains open to review, with cost-benefit analysis a key part in future assessments in the next 5-10 years. © 2012 Icon, The Institute of Conservation. Source

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