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Budapest, Hungary

Rodriguez A.,University of the Basque Country | Eremin K.,Straus Center for Conservation | Khandekar N.,Straus Center for Conservation | Stenger J.,Straus Center for Conservation | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2010

Applied tin-relief brocade (commonly called applied brocade) refers to adecorative painting technique using tin leaf applied over a supporting reliefmass (filling) which is glued to the artwork to simulate gold and silver textilebrocades. This originated in Germany ca 1415-1430 and spread across Europe fromthe mid-15th century to the mid-16th century. This study focuses on six early16th century altarpieces in the Basque country in the present province ofGuipúzcoa, Spain. Cross sections of the ground and applied brocade wereinitially examined with optical microscopy and staining tests for proteins andlipids to assess the layering structure and materials present. Furtherexamination with Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-rayspectroscopy identified the inorganic and organic components of the variouslayers. Raman spectroscopic mapping was used to image the location of phases inselected cross sections. Five altarpieces from Spain had calcium sulfategrounds, whereas one thought to come from Flanders had a calcium carbonateground. Raman and FTIR spectra showed that the thick, coarse lower ground layer(yeso grueso) is anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite) whereas the fine, thinupper ground layer (yeso fino) is calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum). Thefilling masses consisted of different mixtures of inorganic (chiefly gypsum oranhydrite but occasionally with other pigments or additives) and organic(protein and/or oil or beeswax) materials. Comparison of the documentedhistorical techniques with the materials found provides insight into localvariations of the technique. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Casadio F.,School of the Art Institute of Chicago | Bezur A.,Museum of Fine Arts | Fiedler I.,School of the Art Institute of Chicago | Muir K.,School of the Art Institute of Chicago | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy | Year: 2012

The Raman spectra of approximately 20 reference samples of cobalt-based green and violet artists' pigments of various provenance (present day manufactory, historical reference pigments and samples from a contemporary artist's studio) were acquired to assist in the identification of unknown cobalt-based pigments in works by Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) and Jasper Johns (b. 1930). Specifically, Raman spectra were obtained for various cobalt titanate greens (Co 2TiO 4), highlighting variability in peak positions because of ionic substitutions in the spinel structures of such pigments. The Raman spectra of the cobalt violet pigments magnesium cobalt arsenate (Mg xCo 3-x(AsO 4) 2) and hydrated forms, ammonium cobalt phosphate hydrate (NH 4CoPO 4*H 2O), and anhydrous cobalt phosphate, Co 3(PO 4) 2 were also recorded; some of which are presented here for the first time. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to confirm the composition of the reference materials. An optimal technique to characterize microscopic cross sections from the studied artworks is Raman microscopy, which can also provide valuable information on the hydration states of the examined phases. The multi-analytical methodology allowed the identification of the unknown green pigment used by Jasper Johns as cobalt titanate green (C.I. PG 50); representing the first documented occurrence of this pigment in the palette of a renowned contemporary artist. Both magnesium cobalt arsenate (in anhydrous and hydrated forms) and anhydrous cobalt phosphate were identified in the Picasso painting. This research advances the knowledge of 20th century synthetic inorganic pigments used by artists and documents their usage in actual works of art. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Grant
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 133.53K | Year: 2011

With this award from the Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) Program, Dr. Richard Newman from the Museum of Fine Arts and colleague Richard Laursen (Boston University) will acquire a capillary liquid chromatograph (LC) interfaced with an ion trap-mass spectrometer. The award will enhance research training and education at all levels, especially in areas such as analyses of natural and synthetic dyestuffs used in cultural artifacts (including textiles, easel and wall paintings, and polychromed sculpture). The objectives of this project are to gain insights into the compounds that are found in the raw (plant) source material; to enable comparisons between these compounds and those actually present on test samples that have been dyed or colored with the natural materials using a variety of extraction and dyeing procedures; as well as to provide information to identify the dyestuffs on deteriorated artifacts in which original dye components may have been significantly altered.

Mass spectrometers (MS) are used to identify the chemical composition of a sample by measuring the mass of the molecular constituents in the sample after they are ionized and detected. This instrument couples a capillary liquid chromatography system with the mass analysis ability. The liquid chromatograph separates minute volumes of mixtures of compounds extracted from the art pieces into its molecular components. These components then flow into a mass spectrometer where they are ionized and their masses determined. The instrumentation will be used not only for research that will help preserve art but also in laboratory courses at nearby Simmons College.


Trademark
Museum Of Fine Arts | Date: 2011-05-03

Sculptures made of glass; sculptures made primarily of glass and metal where glass is the primary composition; coasters not made of paper and other than table linen.


Trademark
Museum Of Fine Arts | Date: 2014-05-09

Magazines featuring articles on art, culture, history, education, entertainment, museums, museum exhibitions, and community events.

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