Halberstadt, Germany
Halberstadt, Germany

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Reichlin T.S.,University of Bern | Reichlin T.S.,Swiss Ornithological Institute | Hobson K.A.,Environment Canada | Wassenaar L.I.,Environment Canada | And 7 more authors.
Diversity and Distributions | Year: 2010

Aim: Conservation programmes for endangered migratory species or populations require locating and evaluating breeding, stopover and wintering areas. We used multiple stable isotopes in two endangered European populations of wrynecks, Jynx torquilla L., to locate wintering regions and assess the degree of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering populations. Location: Switzerland and Germany. Methods: We analysed stable nitrogen (δ15N), carbon (δ13C) and hydrogen (δD) isotopes from wing feathers from two populations of wrynecks to infer their wintering origins and to assess the strength of migratory connectivity. We tested whether variation in feather isotopic values within the Swiss population was affected by bird age and collection year and then considered differences in isotopic values between the two breeding populations. We used isotopic values of summer- and winter-grown feathers to estimate seasonal distributions. Finally, we calculated a species-specific δD discrimination factor between feathers and mean annual δD values to assign winter-grown feathers to origin. Results: Bird age and collection year caused substantial isotopic variation in winter-grown feathers, which may be because of annually variable weather conditions, movements of birds among wintering sites and/or reflect asynchronous moulting or selection pressure. The large isotopic variance in winter-grown feathers nevertheless suggested low migratory connectivity for each breeding population, with partially overlapping wintering regions for the two populations. Main conclusions: Isotopic variance in winter-grown feathers of two breeding populations of wrynecks and their geographical assignment point to defined, albeit overlapping, wintering areas, suggesting both leapfrog migration and low migratory connectivity. On this basis, integrative demographic models can be built looking at seasonal survival patterns with links to local environmental conditions on both breeding and wintering grounds, which may elucidate causes of declines in migratory bird species. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Wink M.,University of Heidelberg | Becker D.,Museum Heineanum | Tolkmitt D.,Menckestrasse 34 | Knigge V.,University of Heidelberg | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Ornithology | Year: 2011

This paper provides for the first time an insight into the breeding system of the Eurasian Wryneck (Jynx torquilla). DNA fingerprinting and molecular sexing were used to investigate paternity, mating system and sex allocation in a population near the city of Halberstadt, Germany. Similar to other woodpeckers, social and genetic monogamy is the norm in this species. The abundance of extra-pair paternity is low, and only 0. 68% of all young [n = 292] were extra-pair young. In addition, wrynecks are facultatively polygynous, but apparently only sequentially polygynous: among 50 broods, 3 cases of social and genetic bigyny were discovered, where males started a secondary brood with a different partner while nestlings of the primary brood had still not fledged. Bigynous males raised 13 offspring per season, as compared to 6.14 young for monogamous males with a single brood. In first broods, the number of sons was almost the same as the number of daughters (54.9% sons), and in second and replacement broods the proportion of males again did not differ significantly from parity (56.5%). Overall, sex allocation was not significantly correlated with the timing of broods (time of hatching) or the mating status of the female. © 2011 Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V.

van Wijk R.E.,Swiss Ornithological Institute | Schaub M.,Swiss Ornithological Institute | Becker D.,Museum Heineanum | Hahn S.,Swiss Ornithological Institute
Ibis | Year: 2013

European Wrynecks Jynx torquilla torquilla have generally been considered to be long-distance Palaearctic-African migrants that spend the non-breeding season in Sahelian Africa, where they have been reported regularly. Results from tracking individual birds showed that Wrynecks from two Central European populations migrated only relatively short distances to the Iberian Peninsula and northwestern Africa (c. 1500 km and 3000 km, respectively), compared with a minimum distance of about 4500 km to Sahelian Africa. Additionally, differences in wing lengths of populations from Central and Northern Europe support the idea of leap-frog migration, populations from Northern Europe being long-distance migrants with a non-breeding distribution in Sahelian Africa. © 2013 British Ornithologists' Union.

Links between art and science are briefly depicted using the examples of bird artists and their bird illustrations. From the very beginning of the precise study of nature in the Renaissance, there had been no distinction between these two social spheres of work for a long time. Their definite separation apparently only became obvious towards the end of the 18th century. Until today, there remains a relatively close link and a wide overlap especially in scientific illustration. It appears to be left to the subjective approach of the users and consumers as to what they consider to be art or science, i.e. where the line is drawn. In conclusion, the statement is justified as to why in the unforeseeable future illustrations and photography will have the right to exist side by side in science.

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