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Wilmsen M.,Museum fur Mineralogie und Geologie | Mosavinia A.,Payame Noor University
Palaontologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2011

Taxonomic concepts of Early-Middle Cenomanian representatives of Schloenbachia Neumayr, 1875 are evaluated based on well-preserved, abundant faunas from NE Iran (Atamir Formation, Koppeh Dagh) and Germany (Essen Greensand and Baddeckenstedt formations at several localities in northern Germany; Meißen Formation of Saxony). From a single Lower Cenomanian horizon in the Atamir Formation, a complete suite of specimens of Schloenbachia varians (J. Sowerby, 1817), ranging from moderately involute, compressed and finely ornamented ("forma subplana") to more evolute, depressed and strongly spinose forms ("forma ventriosa") with all transitional morphologies, is documented. Also in the shallow-water faunas of the "Klippenfazies" of the Essen Greensand Formation at Mülheim-Broich and of the Meißen Formation, all morphotypes co-occur. Thus, these forms cannot be regarded as geographic subspecies or successive chrono-subspecies, but reflect a high degree of variability in shell form and ornament (phenotypic plasticity) in S. varians. Interestingly, strongly tuberculate forms are rare to absent in contemporaneous offshore settings as documented by the Baddeckenstedt Formation. The phenotypic plasticity in Early Cenomanian S. varians populations is explained by ecophenotypic variation along a depth (proximal-distal) gradient: strongly tuberculate, depressed forms reflect comparatively shallow, nearshore environments with higher water energy and predation pressure, whereas compressed, weakly ornamented morphs are forms of open (and deeper) marine waters. The complete range of different forms is also observed in micro- and macroconchs, suggesting that the morphological variability is not controlled by sexual dimorphism. Based on its similarity to S. varians, also the Middle Cenomanian Ammonites coupei Brongniart, 1822 may be placed in the synonymy of the former. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Bayet-Goll A.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Geyer G.,University of Wurzburg | Wilmsen M.,Museum fur Mineralogie und Geologie | Mahboubi A.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Moussavi-Harami R.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
Facies | Year: 2014

Based on their lithologic characteristics and stratal geometries, the Middle Cambrian Fasham and Deh-Sufiyan Formations of the lower Mila Group in the Central Alborz, northern Iran, exhibit 39 lithofacies representing several supratidal to deep subtidal facies belts. The siliciclastic successions of the Fasham Formation are divided into two facies associations, suggesting deposition in a tide-dominated, open-mouthed estuarine setting. The mixed, predominantly carbonate successions of the Deh-Sufiyan Formation are grouped into ten facies associations. Four depositional zones are recognized on the Deh-Sufiyan ramp: basinal, outer ramp (deep subtidal associations), mid ramp (shallow subtidal to lower intertidal associations), and inner ramp (shoal and upper intertidal to supratidal associations). These facies associations are arranged in small-scale sedimentary cycles, i.e., peritidal, shallow subtidal, and deep subtidal cycles. These cycles reflect spatial differences in the reaction of the depositional system to small-scale relative sea-level changes. Small-scale cycles are stacked into medium-scale cycles that in turn are building blocks of large-scale cycles. Systematic changes in stacking pattern (cycle thickness, cycle type, and facies proportion) allow to reconstruct long-term changes in sea-level. Six large-scale cycles (S1-S6) have been identified and are interpreted as depositional sequences showing retrogradational (transgressive systems tract) and progradational (highstand systems tract) packages of facies associations. The six depositional sequences provide the basis for inter-regional sequence stratigraphic correlations and have been controlled by eustatic sea-level changes. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Jafarian A.,Islamic Azad University at Shahrood | Ghazi S.,University of Punjab | Adnan A.,Banaras Hindu University | Shukla U.K.,Banaras Hindu University | And 2 more authors.
Arabian Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2014

The Early Eocene sequence of Neyshaboor, Binalud region of Iran is predominantly composed of arenaceous deposits. Two stratigraphically important sections from the Damanjan and Taghan areas have been investigated based on field work, petrographic and geochemical analyses. Eight lithofacies were identified and have been grouped in to conglomerate, sandstone, and mudstone facies association. Petrographic and geochemical data show that the Early Eocene sandstones are mainly composed of arkoses and litharenites classes. Provenance analysis indicates that sediments were supplied from a nearby andesitic–granitic source with minor contribution of metamorphic and sedimentary sources. The presence of predominance of monocrystalline over polycrystalline quartz and abundance of K-feldspars; Cu and Pb contents also support this interpretation. However, subordinate representation of polycrystalline quartz grains, chert, volcanic rock fragments, biotite, zircon, as well as higher percentage of MgO and Fe2O3, suggest some contribution from high-grade metamorphic gneissic rocks and, to a lesser degree, from intermediate to basic volcanics. Climate varied from humid in the beginning of the sedimentation to sub-humid and arid during the later phases. Sedimentation was also influenced by prominent tectonic activity in the source when coarser clastic sediments were deposited as multistoried conglomerates. Lithofacies characters of the rock succession suggest sedimentation took place in a piedmont fan environment, adjacent to a rising orogeny in an active foreland basin setting. Clay to sand and gravel-sized sediments were laid down by meandering and braided rivers and by debris flows under changing conditions of climate and tectonics. © 2013, Saudi Society for Geosciences. Source


Wilmsen M.,Museum fur Mineralogie und Geologie | Niebuhr B.,Museum fur Mineralogie und Geologie | Chellouche P.,GeoZentrum Nordbayern
Acta Geologica Polonica | Year: 2010

The belemnite records of the lower Danubian Cretaceous Group (DCG, northeastern Bavaria, southern Germany) are compiled, taxonomically described and placed within the new integrated stratigraphic framework of the group. Three specimens from the lower Regensburg Formation (Saal Member) south of Regensburg can be assigned to Neohibolites cf. ultimus (d'Orbigny) and are dated as late Early Cenomanian (Mantelliceras dixoni Zone). Eight specimens represent Praeactinocamax plenus (Blainville) and occur in an event (plenus Event) in the lower Eibrunn Formation (Regensburg area) or basal Regensburg Formation (Roding area in the Bodenwöhrer Senke). Biostratigraphy and carbon stable isotopes suggest that the belemnite horizon with P. plenus in the DCG has strictly the same chronostratigraphic position (mid-Late Cenomanian, middle Metoicoceras geslinianum Zone) as elsewhere in Central and NW Europe. The lithostratigraphic units of the lower Danubian Cretaceous Group (i.e., the Regensburg and Eibrunn formations), however, are characterized by a pronounced diachronism based on their time-transgressive (i.e., onlapping) deposition during the Cenomanian-Early Turonian transgression. The distribution of P. plenus around the Mid-European Island can be easily explained by migration around the positive area without the necessity of a marine strait across the Bohemian Massif. Source

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