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Stagl J.,Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research | Hattermann F.F.,Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research | Vohland K.,Museum For Naturkunde Leibniz Institute For Research On Evolution And Biodiversity
Regional Environmental Change | Year: 2015

Climate change is expected to become an important driver influencing biodiversity. To protect biological diversity in the long term, nature conservationists must include potential climate change impacts in their management decisions. In order to incorporate effective climate change adaption strategies in the management of protected areas, potential threats of climate change need to be identified. In this study, climate model projections have been evaluated to derive information about the future exposure of nature parks to climate change. Indicators reflecting climate boundary conditions were selected in a cooperative process, considering both scientifically reliable climate scenario analysis and the requirements of park managers. The evaluation exhibits large uncertainties depending on the indicator. While for temperature, a warming trend is projected for all the regions, future projections for precipitation show the largest inter-model uncertainties. The Climatic Water Balance reflects the potential water availability and aids clarification to stakeholders, as it incorporates the temperature trend. The analysis robustly indicates a prolongation for the climatic growing season. The main challenges related to climate model information for decision-making are the uncertainties, different scales of climate and ecosystem processes and the finding of a common communication level for knowledge transfer. The results are useful for climate-influenced decision-making and provide one part of evidence for making adaptation decisions. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Dadheech P.K.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Dadheech P.K.,Central University of Rajasthan | Dadheech P.K.,Government of Rajasthan | Glockner G.,University of Cologne | And 10 more authors.
FEMS Microbiology Ecology | Year: 2013

Hot springs and saline-alkaline lakes of East Africa are extreme habitats regarding temperature, or salinity and pH, respectively. This study examines whether divergent habitats of Lake Bogoria, Kenya, impacts cyanobacterial community structure. Samples from the hot springs, pelagic zone and sediment were analysed by light microscopy, multilocus 454-amplicons sequencing and metagenomics to compare the cyanobacterial diversity. Most of the phylogenetic lineages of Cyanobacteria occurred exclusively in the Bogoria hot springs suggesting a high degree of endemism. The prevalent phylotypes were mainly members of the Oscillatoriales (Leptolyngbya, Spirulina, Oscillatoria-like and Planktothricoides). The Chroococcales were represented by different clades of Synechococcus but not a single phylotype clustered with any of the lineages described earlier from different continents. In contrast, we found that the pelagic zone and the sediments were inhabited by only a few taxa, dominated by Arthrospira and Anabaenopsis. Arthrospira, the main food base of Lesser Flamingo, was detected in all three habitats by amplicons pyrosequencing, indicating its resilience and key role as a primary producer. Despite the close connection between the three habitats studied, the cyanobacterial communities in the hot springs and lake differed considerably, suggesting that they are unable to adapt to the extreme conditions of the neighbouring habitat. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & sons Ltd.


Schaer J.,Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology | Schaer J.,Museum For Naturkunde Leibniz Institute For Research On Evolution And Biodiversity | Reeder D.M.,Bucknell University | Vodzak M.E.,Bucknell University | And 6 more authors.
International Journal for Parasitology | Year: 2015

Parasitic protozoan parasites have evolved many co-evolutionary paths towards stable transmission to their host population. Plasmodium spp., the causative agents of malaria, and related haemosporidian parasites are dipteran-borne eukaryotic pathogens that actively invade and use vertebrate erythrocytes for gametogenesis and asexual development, often resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality of the infected hosts. Here, we present results of a survey of insectivorous bats from tropical Africa, including new isolates of species of the haemosporidian genus Nycteria. A hallmark of these parasites is their capacity to infect bat species of distinct families of the two evolutionary distant chiropteran suborders. We did detect Nycteria parasites in both rhinolophid and nycterid bat hosts in geographically separate areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, however our molecular phylogenetic analyses support the separation of the parasites into two distinct clades corresponding to their host genera, suggestive of ancient co-divergence and low levels of host switching. For one clade of these parasites, cytochrome b genes could not be amplified and cytochrome oxidase I sequences showed unusually high rates of evolution, suggesting that the mitochondrial genome of these parasites may have either been lost or substantially altered. This haemosporidian parasite-mammalian host system also highlights that sequential population expansion in the liver and gametocyte formation is a successful alternative to intermediate erythrocytic replication cycles. © 2015 The Authors.


Nagy M.,Museum For Naturkunde Leibniz Institute For Research On Evolution And Biodiversity | Nagy M.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Knornschild M.,University of Ulm | Gunther L.,Museum For Naturkunde Leibniz Institute For Research On Evolution And Biodiversity | And 2 more authors.
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology | Year: 2014

Recent evidence suggests that tropical bats may frequently depart from the predominant mammalian male-biased dispersal pattern. So far, two emballonurid bat species that are closely related to our study species (Grey sac-winged bat, Balantiopteryx plicata) have been found to exhibit exceptional female-biased dispersal that is in accordance with father-daughter inbreeding avoidance. In contrast, using a combination of long-term behavioral observations of banded bats and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial d-loop, our results suggest that B. plicata is the first Neotropical emballonurid with female philopatry and frequent male dispersal. However, just like in the other emballonurids, the age of females at first conception fell below the tenure of males. Thus, philopatric B. plicata females might face a father-daughter inbreeding risk if mating with males from their roosts. Such risk could be circumvented if mating occurs outside the nursing roost, e.g., in male mating aggregations. In contrast to other Neotropical emballonurid bats, the Grey sac-winged bat forms colonies with a greatly male-biased sex ratio (only 5 and 21 % females). Males of such colonies showed high roost fidelity and the sex ratio did not change throughout the year and for up to many years, suggesting an important role in mating. We conclude that studying the diverse mating and dispersal patterns of Neotropical emballonurids shows great potential to enlarge our understanding on how the proposed ultimate causes (i.e., avoidance of inbreeding and local competition between kin) affect the evolution of sex-biased dispersal. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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