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Demeter F.,CNRS Eco-anthropology and Ethnobiology | Patole-Edoumba E.,Museum dHistoire Naturelle de La Rochelle | Duringer P.,University of Strasbourg | Bacon A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 5 more authors.
Geoarchaeology | Year: 2010

In 1963, E. Saurin and J.-P. Carbonnel discovered the Sre Sbov site on an alluvial terrace of the Mekong River in central Cambodia. Saurin described a lithic typology dating to the Lower/Middle Pleistocene from this site. Although the original lithic assemblage has been lost, this typology has been used continuously as a reference by Southeast Asian prehistorians. In 2007, a Khmer-French team conducted excavations at Sre Sbov that yielded numerous pebbles and cobbles showing apparently convincing handmade removals, as Saurin had previously described. However, an in-depth study of this assemblage, combined with a geological survey of the area, led to the conclusion that the stones were, in fact, of natural origin, and that for this reason their typology should be disregarded. Using satellite imagery and geological surveys, we explain how such a misinterpretation may have occurred and define a "buffer zone," corresponding to the maximal extent of the proto-Mekong River, where fluvially reworked pebbles and cobbles resembling artifacts may be recovered. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Demeter F.,Departement Homme Nature Societe | Demeter F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Shackelford L.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Westaway K.,Macquarie University | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Little is known about the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in Eastern Eurasia. However a rapid migration out of Africa into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka is supported by archaeological, paleogenetic and paleoanthropological data. Recent discoveries in Laos, a modern human cranium (TPL1) from Tam Pa Ling 's cave, provided the first evidence for the presence of early modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia by 63-46 ka. In the current study, a complete human mandible representing a second individual, TPL 2, is described using discrete traits and geometric morphometrics with an emphasis on determining its population affinity. The TPL2 mandible has a chin and other discrete traits consistent with early modern humans, but it retains a robust lateral corpus and internal corporal morphology typical of archaic humans across the Old World. The mosaic morphology of TPL2 and the fully modern human morphology of TPL1 suggest that a large range of morphological variation was present in early modern human populations residing in the eastern Eurasia by MIS 3.

Bacon A.-M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Westaway K.,Macquarie University | Antoine P.-O.,Montpellier University | Duringer P.,University of Strasbourg | And 10 more authors.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2015

Karstic sites have great potential for yielding data regarding changes in faunal communities in the Pleistocene of Southeast Asia. In this region, the majority of fossil-bearing deposits are karstic breccias, which generally demonstrate a complicated sedimentary history. While most of the mammalian assemblages recovered in these deposits are only composed of isolated teeth, their study remains essential for reconstructing paleoecology and paleoclimatology of the region. We analyzed the assemblages recovered in three mainland and two insular karstic sites: Tam Hang South and Nam Lot in northern Laos, Duoi U'Oi in northern Vietnam, Punung in central Java and Sibrambang in western Sumatra and obtained new chronologies for three of these sites so that their significance could be discussed within their correct chronological context. The resulting age ranges place the sites in MIS5 and MIS4. The comparative analysis of the faunas, in terms of taphonomy, taxonomic diversity and abundance, and mortality profiles (. Cervus unicolor, Sus scrofa, Sus vittatus, rhinocerotids and Tapirus indicus), reveals marked differences in prey-predators (carnivores and/or humans) relationships in relation to habitat. The study of hominines-bearing sites (Punung, Nam Lot, Duoi U'Oi) allows us to emphasize different interactions with large carnivores (felids, hyaenids, canids). © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Vullo R.,CNRS Geosciences Laboratory of Rennes | Buffetaut E.,CNRS ENS Geology Laboratory | Neraudeau D.,CNRS Geosciences Laboratory of Rennes | Le Loeuff J.,Musee des Dinosaures | And 2 more authors.
Annales de Paleontologie | Year: 2012

The "Megalosaur" remains from Saint-Agnant (Charente-Maritime, France), reported as early as 1881 by Boissellier, are here described and figured for the first time. These bones, as well as a few additional specimens from the nearby locality of Soubise, belong in fact to an indeterminate sauropod. The stratigraphical position of these remains unambiguously indicates an infra-Cenomanian age. However, the presence in this area of continental deposits with Purbeckian and Wealden facies does not allow to decide between an earliest or late Early Cretaceous age. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Spitz J.,CNRS Coastal and Marine Environment Laboratory | Mourocq E.,University of La Rochelle | Leaute J.-P.,British Petroleum | Quero J.-C.,Museum dHistoire Naturelle de La Rochelle | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology | Year: 2010

Which characteristics define the prey species constituting the diet of a given predator? Answering this question would help predict a predator's diet and improve our understanding of how an ecosystemfunctions. The aim of this studywas to test if the diet of common dolphins, Delphinus delphis, in the oceanic Bay of Biscay reflected prey availability or a selection shaped by prey energy densities (ED). To do this, the community of potential prey species, described both in terms of relative abundance and energy densities, was compared to the common dolphin diet in this area. This analysis of a predator's diet and its prey field revealed that the common dolphin selected its diet on the basis of prey energy densities (significant values of Chesson's index for EDN5 kJ g-1). High-energy prey were positively selected in the diet [e.g. Notoscopelus kroeyeri, ED=7.9 kJ g-1, 9% of relative abundance in the environment (%Ne); 62% of relative abundance in the diet (%Nd)] and low-energy prey disregarded (Xenodermichthys copei, ED=2.1 kJ g-1, 20%Ne, 0%Nd). These results supported the hypothesis that common dolphins selected high energy density prey species to meet their energetically expensive life style and disregard prey organisms of poor energy content even when abundant in the environment. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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