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Goffard A.,Lille University Hospital Center | Demanche C.,Lille University Hospital Center | Arthur L.,Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de Bourges | Pincon C.,Lille University Hospital Center | And 3 more authors.
Viruses | Year: 2015

Bats are a reservoir for a diverse range of viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs). To determine the presence of CoVs in French bats, fecal samples were collected between July and August of 2014 from four bat species in seven different locations around the city of Bourges in France. We present for the first time the presence of alpha-CoVs in French Pipistrellus pipistrellus bat species with an estimated prevalence of 4.2%. Based on the analysis of a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, phylogenetic analyses show that alpha-CoVs sequences detected in French bats are closely related to other European bat alpha-CoVs. Phylogeographic analyses of RdRp sequences show that several CoVs strains circulate in European bats: (i) old strains detected that have probably diverged a long time ago and are detected in different bat subspecies; (ii) strains detected in Myotis and Pipistrellus bat species that have more recently diverged. Our findings support previous observations describing the complexity of the detected CoVs in bats worldwide. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


PubMed | Museum dHistoire Naturelle de Bourges, University of Liège and Lille University Hospital Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Viruses | Year: 2015

Bats are a reservoir for a diverse range of viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs). To determine the presence of CoVs in French bats, fecal samples were collected between July and August of 2014 from four bat species in seven different locations around the city of Bourges in France. We present for the first time the presence of alpha-CoVs in French Pipistrellus pipistrellus bat species with an estimated prevalence of 4.2%. Based on the analysis of a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, phylogenetic analyses show that alpha-CoVs sequences detected in French bats are closely related to other European bat alpha-CoVs. Phylogeographic analyses of RdRp sequences show that several CoVs strains circulate in European bats: (i) old strains detected that have probably diverged a long time ago and are detected in different bat subspecies; (ii) strains detected in Myotis and Pipistrellus bat species that have more recently diverged. Our findings support previous observations describing the complexity of the detected CoVs in bats worldwide.


Arthur L.,Museum dHistoire Naturelle de Bourges | Larcher G.,SFEPM Chiroptera Group | Harbusch C.,Nature and Biodiversity Conservation Union
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. © 2014 Picard-Meyer et al.


Arthur L.,Museum dHistoire Naturelle de Bourges | Lemaire M.,Museum dHistoire Naturelle de Bourges | Dufrene L.,CNRS Science Conservation Center | Viol I.L.,CNRS Science Conservation Center | And 2 more authors.
Acta Chiropterologica | Year: 2014

In gregarious species, the choice of colony location is especially crucial as the costs associated with breeding near conspecifics are important and the quality of a breeding patch is known to affect individual fitness. Consequently one could expect robust decisionmaking rules regarding colony location. The conceptual framework of animal aggregation with regards to habitat selection emphasizes that the presence and success of conspecifics are cues to habitat selection. Based on this, we explored how the distribution of breeding colonies could inform us about how habitat selection operates in bats. The data set we used was provided by a volunteer network whose first aim is to advise citizens facing bats in distress or bats in their homes. The dataset contained information on the locations of 105 serotine (Eptesicus serotinus) breeding colonies in a French region primarily dominated by an agricultural landscape. The methodology used for calculating habitat availability was based on the comparison of habitats surrounding serotine colonies to habitats surrounding random points. We found that serotine bats positively select pastoral and aquatic habitats regardless of the comparison used. The strong correlation between our results and those obtained with radio-tracking or acoustic methods underlines the robustness of this spatial distribution approach. The analysis of the history of the serotine colonies over a period of nearly 20 years showed that when attics are restored by the owners without the help of the bat rescue network, the probability of a departure of colony is greater. In addition, monitoring reduces the occurrence of an unsympathetic building restoration. © Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.


Besson L.,Museum dHistoire Naturelle de Bourges
Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club | Year: 2012

A comprehensive search of ornithological collections throughout the world yielded a total of 75 specimens of Dusky Friarbird Philemon fuscicapillns, a Vulnerable species, held in 25 museums. This represents 48 additional specimens to those already known. The history of this material is discussed. Five collectors were identified: C. Allen, H. A. Bernstein, J. M. Dumas, A. Hueting and G. A. L. Haan. The 18 collected by Charles Allen on behalf of Wallace are syntypes. All 70 documented specimens are from Morotai. There is no historical proof of the presence of the species on Halmahera or Bacan, despite that these islands are frequently considered part of the species' range. © 2012 British Ornithologists' Club.

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