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Sachanowicz K.,Museum and Institute of Zoology | Wower A.,Upper Silesian Nature Heritage Center | Buszko J.,Nicolaus Copernicus University
European Journal of Entomology

Using a large sample of museum and newly collected specimens of the cryptic butterfly species Leptidea sinapis and L. reali, identified/confirmed based on genital characters, the patterns in their geographical distributions, historical changes in range and briefly also their habitat associations in Poland, were investigated. Leptidea sinapis occurs mainly in the lowland and upland parts of the country and is rarer than L. reali, which is widespread throughout Poland, including the mountains. In the first half of the 20th century, the range of L. sinapis included the whole of Poland, whereas currently it is confined to eastern and southern regions. Historical records of the distribution of L. reali are concentrated in southern and central Poland. Currently it is recorded from localities throughout Poland. Leptidea reali is recorded most frequently in meadows and shows no clear preference for a particular level of humidity, while L. sinapis is found mainly in woodland and xerothermic habitats. The two species are syntopic within the present range of L. sinapis, which is now a declining and local species, whereas L. reali is now common and widespread. Source

Uhrin M.,University of P.J. Safarik | Uhrin M.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Huttmeir U.,Austrian Coordination Center for Bat Conservation and Research | Kipson M.,Charles University | And 20 more authors.
Mammal Review

Savi's pipistrelle Hypsugo savii is a Mediterranean faunal element among the bats; it occurs in southern Europe, the Canary Islands, north-western Africa, most of the Mediterranean islands, in the northern part of the Middle East, in the Crimea, Caucasus, West Turkestan, and northern Afghanistan. The northern margin of its geographical range in Europe reaches the Pyrenees, Massif Central, southern Alps, Dalmatia, Balkan Mountains and southern Crimea, like that of other similar biogeographical elements. Since the 1990s, Hypsugo savii started to be found in inland areas of south-eastern Europe and in Central Europe as far northwards as in central Bohemia and southern Poland. These numerous new occurrences seem to be either 1) connected to environmental changes caused by the current climate change 2) evidence of an intrinsic expansion process powered by the species' synanthropic tendency, including passive human-mediated transport; or 3) a reflection of the increase in field survey efforts. Distributional data on Hypsugo savii from central and south-eastern parts of Europe were gathered and evaluated. We provide a detailed review of all records available by the end of 2013. The assessment of temporal distribution of the data clearly shows an ongoing and relatively fast expansion of Hypsugo savii from southern to Central Europe, which represents a shift of almost 800km northwards in the last 20-25 years. Most of the records (65%) originate from urban habitats. This suggests that the synanthropic habits of the species are the most plausible explanation for the northwards shift of the range limits of Hypsugo savii. © 2016 The Mammal Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Anufriieva E.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Holynska M.,Museum and Institute of Zoology | Shadrin N.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences
Annales Zoologici

The Crimean Peninsula holds a large number of hypersaline water bodies. Our studies focused on these poorly investigated habitats, and included few brackish and freshwater ponds. Seventeen species were identified, of which only 4(5) were collected from hypersaline waters sometimes with extremely high salinities (Acanthocyclops sp. copepodid, 210 ppt; Eucyclops sp. copepodid, 150 ppt; Diacyclops bisetosus and Cyclops furcifer, 140-150 ppt). We also report on the occurrence of three alien thermophilic species (Eucyclops roseus Ishida, 1997, Mesocyclops isabellae Dussart et Fernando, 1988, and Mesocyclops pehpeiensis Hu, 1943) from the brackish and fresh waters of Crimea. Morphological descriptions, illustrations of the diagnostic characters and comments on relevant taxonomic issues are supplemented with discussion of the putative ways of dispersal of the alien copepods to Crimea. We provisionally reinstate Eucyclops roseus, regarded by others as a subspecies of E. agiloides (G. O. Sars, 1909), and retain the name Acanthocyclops trajani Mirabdullayev et Defaye, 2002 which was recently synonymized with A. americanus (Marsh, 1893) here considered a nomen dubium. Species accumulation curves based on our and literature data showed that significantly larger sampling efforts could yield a total of 6-8 species in the hypersaline waters and 47-50 species in all types of continental waters of Crimea. © Fundacja Natura optima dux. Source

Ulrich W.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Hoste-Danylow A.,Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw | Falenczyk-Kozirog K.,Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz | Hajdamowicz I.,Siedlce University Of Natural Sciences And Humanities | And 4 more authors.

The question whether total population energy use is invariant to species body size (the energy equivalence hypothesis) is central to metabolic ecology and continues to be controversial. While recent comparative field work and meta-analyses pointed to systematic deviations of the underlying allometric scaling laws from predictions of metabolic theory none of these studies included the variability of metabolic scaling in ecological time. Here we used extensive data on the invertebrate soil fauna of Kampinos National Park (Poland) obtained from six consecutive quantitative sampling seasons to show that phylogenetically corrected species density—body weight and population energy use—body weight relationships across all soil fauna species and within trophic groups and body weight classes were highly variable in time. On average, population energy use tended to increase with species body weight in decomposers and phytophages, but not in predators. Despite these trends, our data do not exclude the possibility that energy equivalence marks the central tendency of energy use in the edaphon. Our results highlight the need for long-term studies on energy use to unequivocally assess predictions of metabolic theory. © 2015, The Author(s). Source

Kaminski M.J.,Museum and Institute of Zoology
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society

Owing to the reinterpretation of its morphological synapomorphies, the taxonomic composition of the Ectateus generic group had been ambiguous. The present study scrutinized all existing taxonomic concepts of the group based on a cladistic analysis of the adult morphology of all of the Afrotropical platynotoid Platynotina genera. The phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed using parsimony and Bayesian inference. The results show that all previous taxonomic concepts of the Ectateus generic group concerned paraphyletic entities. The cladistic analysis revealed the following synapomorphies for the taxon: (1) presence of basal indentations of the pronotal disc, (2) ratio of prothorax width to its maximal height >6.0, and (3) ratio of maximal height of the prothorax to total height <0.3. Moreover, phylogenetic studies revealed the existence of the Upembarus generic group, a sister-taxon group to the Ectateus generic group, within the Afrotropical platynotoid Platynotina. Autapomorphic and synapomorphic character mapping show that several taxonomic and nomenclatural changes are needed to consider the particular generic-level entities traditionally assigned to Afrotropical platynotoid Platynotina as monophyletic lineages. The following taxonomic and nomenclatural adjustments are made in this paper: Pteroselinus gen. nov. is erected to accommodate a single species that was previously assigned to Zidalus: Pteroselinus insularis comb. nov. Additionally, the following synonymies are proposed: Anchophthalmops (=Platykochius syn. nov.), Angolositus (=Aberlencus syn. nov., =Platymedvedevia syn. nov.), Glyptopteryx (=Microselinus syn. nov., =Quadrideres syn. nov., =Synquadrideres syn. nov.). In addition, Kochogaster is lowered in rank and is treated as one of the subgenera of Anchophthalmus. Moreover, Pseudoselinus is treated as a subgenus of Upembarus. An identification key to all Afrotropical platynotoid Platynotina genera and subgenera is presented. Zoogeographical analyses revealed the following dispersal barriers for the Ectateus generic group: (1) the Sahara (northern barrier); (2) the dry ecosystems of Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa (southern barrier); and (3) the Congolian rainforests (internal distributional gap). The ancestor of the taxon probably originated in East African ecoregions that predominantly contained wattletrees (acacias) and CommiphoraJacq. Moreover, past climate changes seem to have had a great impact on the observed generic distribution. © 2015 The Linnean Society of London. Source

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