PubMed | Coordenacao de Ciencias Humanas, National Institute of Amazonian Research, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi MPEG and Federal University of Amazonas
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015
Historical ecologists have demonstrated legacy effects in apparently wild landscapes in Europe, North America, Mesoamerica, Amazonia, Africa and Oceania. People live and farm in archaeological sites today in many parts of the world, but nobody has looked for the legacies of past human occupations in the most dynamic areas in these sites: homegardens. Here we show that the useful flora of modern homegardens is partially a legacy of pre-Columbian occupations in Central Amazonia: the more complex the archaeological context, the more variable the floristic composition of useful native plants in homegardens cultivated there today. Species diversity was 10% higher in homegardens situated in multi-occupational archaeological contexts compared with homegardens situated in single-occupational ones. Species heterogeneity (-diversity) among archaeological contexts was similar for the whole set of species, but markedly different when only native Amazonian species were included, suggesting the influence of pre-conquest indigenous occupations on current homegarden species composition. Our findings show that the legacy of pre-Columbian occupations is visible in the most dynamic of all agroecosystems, adding another dimension to the human footprint in the Amazonian landscape.
Absy M.L.,National Institute of Amazonian Research |
Cleef A.M.,University of Amsterdam |
Dapolito C.,National Institute of Amazonian Research |
Dapolito C.,University of Birmingham |
Da Silva M.F.F.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi MPEG
Palynology | Year: 2014
Pollen rain studies in Amazonia are scarce but of utmost importance to support interpretations of pollen records. We have investigated modern surface pollen spectra and vegetation in an Amazon location, Carajás, Brazil, where open and woody types of vegetation, swamps and lakes develop under rock outcrops. Both plant inventories of different savanna types along with bryophytic surface samples were analysed with ecological ordination. The results point to taxa that can be used in the differentiation of dry and flooded systems within the savannas studied. Dry savannas, either open or wooded, are indicated by the herbs Cuphea, Asteraceae, Borreria, Caryophyllaceae and Polygonaceae, and by woody taxa such as Myrtaceae, Byrsonima, Sapotaceae, Neea and Rubiaceae. Flooded savannas (swamps) and lakes are indicated by herbs like Sagittaria, Montrichardia, Nymphaea, Cyperaceae and Mimosa and palms. Poaceae was found to have a bipolar signature, and using it as an indicator should be done with caution. © 2014 © 2014 AASP - The Palynological Society.
Meyer J.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi MPEG |
Dentel L.,Federal University of Pará |
Meunier F.,French National Center for Scientific Research
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
In the real world, human speech recognition nearly always involves listening in background noise. The impact of such noise on speech signals and on intelligibility performance increases with the separation of the listener from the speaker. The present behavioral experiment provides an overview of the effects of such acoustic disturbances on speech perception in conditions approaching ecologically valid contexts. We analysed the intelligibility loss in spoken word lists with increasing listener-to-speaker distance in a typical low-level natural background noise. The noise was combined with the simple spherical amplitude attenuation due to distance, basically changing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Therefore, our study draws attention to some of the most basic environmental constraints that have pervaded spoken communication throughout human history. We evaluated the ability of native French participants to recognize French monosyllabic words (spoken at 65.3 dB(A), reference at 1 meter) at distances between 11 to 33 meters, which corresponded to the SNRs most revealing of the progressive effect of the selected natural noise (-8.8 dB to -18.4 dB). Our results showed that in such conditions, identity of vowels is mostly preserved, with the striking peculiarity of the absence of confusion in vowels. The results also confirmed the functional role of consonants during lexical identification. The extensive analysis of recognition scores, confusion patterns and associated acoustic cues revealed that sonorant, sibilant and burst properties were the most important parameters influencing phoneme recognition. . Altogether these analyses allowed us to extract a resistance scale from consonant recognition scores. We also identified specific perceptual consonant confusion groups depending of the place in the words (onset vs. coda). Finally our data suggested that listeners may access some acoustic cues of the CV transition, opening interesting perspectives for future studies. © 2013 Meyer et al.
Nunes C.S.,University of Amazon |
Gil A.S.B.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi MPEG |
Trevisan R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Phytotaxa | Year: 2016
Eleocharis pedrovianae is a new species of Cyperaceae from the Serra dos Carajás (Pará State, Brazil), herein described and illustrated. This species lives as a submerged herb in wetlands, marshes and margins of temporary lakes and lagoons with ferric soil (canga). It is morphologically similar to Eleocharis angustispicula, differing by its stoloniferous stem system, the presence of chasmogamous basal spikelets, a perianth of 4(5) bristles, an ellipsoid achene, and a stylopodium that is brown pyramidal, and separated from the achene body by a constriction. © 2016 Magnolia Press.
Pollen quality, meiotic abnormalities and poliploidy in Sisyrinchium commutatum (Iridaceae) [Nota Científica / Short Communication Qualidade polínica, anormalidades meióticas e poliploidia em Sisyrinchium commutatum (Iridaceae)]
De Avila Junior R.S.,Federal University of Pampa |
Urdampilleta J.,National University of Costa Rica |
Gil A.B.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi MPEG
Rodriguesia | Year: 2015
The meiotic behaviour of Sisyrinchium commutatum (Iridaceae) was studied and associated to the pollen quality observed in a southeastern population in Brazil. For the first time, the chromosome number is reported for this species (2n = 36). Some traits of floral biology were recorded and secondary pollen presentation as well as the absence of autonomous self-fertilization and apomixy were observed. The results of this study confirm the abnormalities in the meiosis process breaking the pollen grain formation with consequences to reproductive success in the studied population.
PubMed | Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Charité - Medical University of Berlin, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi MPEG and Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015
Pottery was a traditional art and technology form in pre-colonial Amazonian civilizations, widely used for cultural expression objects, utensils and as cooking vessels. Abundance and workability of clay made it an excellent choice. However, inferior mechanical properties constrained their functionality and durability. The inclusion of reinforcement particles is a possible route to improve its resistance to mechanical and thermal damage. The Amazonian civilizations incorporated freshwater tree sponge spicules (cauix) into the clay presumably to prevent shrinkage and crack propagation during drying, firing and cooking. Here we show that isolated siliceous spicules are almost defect-free glass fibres with exceptional mechanical stability. After firing, the spicule Youngs modulus increases (from 285GPa to 468GPa) inferring a toughness increment. Laboratory-fabricated ceramic models containing different inclusions (sand, glass-fibres, sponge spicules) show that mutually-oriented siliceous spicule inclusions prevent shrinkage and crack propagation leading to high stiffness clays (E=8363MPa). Pre-colonial amazonian potters were the first civilization known to employ biological materials to generate composite materials with enhanced fracture resistance and high stiffness in the history of mankind.
Gil A.S.B.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi MPEG |
Bittrich V.,R. Mario de Nucci |
do Amaral M.C.E.,University of Campinas
Phytotaxa | Year: 2014
Neomarica eburnea and N. floscella, two new species of Iridaceae (Trimezieae) from Bahia state (Northeastern Brazil) are here described. Illustrations, diagnostic comparisons with morphologically similar species and an identification key for the species of the genus occurring in Bahia state are presented. © 2014 Magnolia Press.
Mendes Barros K.R.,Federal Rural University of Amazonia |
De Lima H.V.,Federal Rural University of Amazonia |
Rodrigues S.,Federal Rural University of Amazonia |
Kern D.C.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi MPEG
Revista Ciencia Agronomica | Year: 2016
Archaeological dark earth (TPA) are areas of soil with an anthropogenic A horizon of high organic carbon content, a dark colour and high fertility. Little is known about the physical characteristics of these soils, especially with respect to structure and pore space. The hypothesis of this study is that the distribution of structural and textural pore space in TPA soils is similar, regardless of texture. The aim therefore was to evaluate the pore space of TPA soils of different textural classes by employing a double-exponential model. Four archaeological sites of varying grain size were sampled in the towns of Melgaço and Igarapé-Açu, in the State of Pará, Brazil. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected at a depth of 0.10 m. Soil texture ranged from sandy loam to sandy clay loam. The double-exponential equation made it possible to differentiate between textural and structural pores of the TPA sites. Despite the variation in texture, the TPA sites did not differ as to textural porosity, with only site 1 (S1) showing greater structural pore space. The ratio of textural to structural pores did not influence soil density, however, the textural pores were positively related to the organic matter content of the soil.
Dos Santos E.C.B.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi MPEG
STIL 2009 - 2009 7th Brazilian Symposium in Information and Human Language Technology | Year: 2010
This paper describes the Sistema de Informação do Acervo de Línguas Indígenas (SIALI), a database designed to organize the storage of linguistic and ethnographic media data. The database was implemented in MS Access and offers a personalized mechanism for controlling the organization and storage of data, based on library techniques. The physical design presented here identifies the core configuration required in a database, including organization, storage, management, retrieval of data, and other features that are important for a database on storage media. © 2009 IEEE.
Wosiacki W.B.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi MPEG |
Coutinho D.P.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi MPEG |
De Assis Montag L.F.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi MPEG
Zootaxa | Year: 2011
Stenolicmus ix new species is described from Igarapé Curuá left tributary of the Rio Amazonas Pará Brazil It can be distinguished from S sarmientoi by the length of the nasal barbels that reach the base of the first opercular odontodes; length of the maxillary barbels that reach the posterior margin of the opercular odontode plate; seven well-developed opercular odontodes; seven well-developed interopercular odontodes; color pattern of the dorsal region of trunk composed of agglomerated chromatophores forming circular patches twice the diameter of the eye; proportionally large eyes 118 HL; caudal peduncle tall 116 SL without dark bar at base of the caudal fin; length of the head proportionately larger 179 SL; unbranched rays of caudal fin reaching distal margin of fin Comparisons with other Sarcoglanidinae and Trichomycteridae are presented Some comments on the systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the group are made. © 2011 Magnolia Press.