Museo Nacional de Costa Rica

San José, Costa Rica

Museo Nacional de Costa Rica

San José, Costa Rica
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News Article | August 18, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Climate change and habitat conversion to agriculture are working together to homogenize nature, indicates a study in the journal Global Change Biology led by the University of California, Davis. In other words, the more things change, the more they are the same. While the individual impacts of climate change and habitat conversion on wildlife are well-recognized, little is known about how species respond to both stressors at once. In northwest Costa Rica, the study's authors surveyed birds and plants at 120 sites that included rainforests, dry forests and farmland to determine how habitat conversion and climate-change-induced droughts affect tropical wildlife. They found that different bird species thrive in drier versus wetter areas of forests. In farmlands however, birds associated with dry sites were found everywhere, even in the wettest sites. "Across Central and South America, we are seeing large areas being converted from native forest to agriculture, and droughts are becoming more frequent," said lead author Daniel Karp, an assistant professor in the UC Davis Department of Wildlife, Fish and Conservation Biology. "Both of these global pressures are favoring the same species and threatening the same species This means we may be losing biodiversity faster than we previously thought when we were studying climate change and habitat conversion individually." Karp said the most vulnerable birds at the study sites were those in the wet forests, which include tropical birds like tanagers, manakins, and woodcreepers. He noted that birds in the agricultural sites -- such as blackbirds, doves, and sparrows -- were more similar to those found in the dry forest, where there is less of a tree canopy and more grass cover. "Now that we know this, we know what to focus on from a conservation perspective," Karp said. To help retain high levels of biodiversity, land managers could target for protection areas of wetter forests that expected to stay wet in the future. Conservation dollars could also focus on wet-forest species that are particularly sensitive to habitat conversion and climate change. Another option is to incentivize private landowners in wet regions to create or maintain patches of forests near or within their farms to better balance food production and biodiversity. Co-authoring institutions include the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, University of Toronto, the Unión de Ornitólogos de Costa Rica, and the Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. The study was funded by the Killam Fellowships Program, University of British Columbia, University of Toronto, Canada Research Chairs Program, FuturAuga, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.


Aguilar D.S.,Harvard University | Estrada Ch. A.,Museo Nacional de Costa Rica
Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas | Year: 2014

Two new species of Myrcia endemic to Costa Rica are described and illustrated: Myrcia paulii-jonesii and Myrcia riverae. Their affinities, distribution, phenology, and habitat are discussed. © 2015, Botanical Research Institute of Texas Inc. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INT-12-2015 | Award Amount: 2.42M | Year: 2016

The EU-LAC-MUSEUMS project directly meets the challenge of fostering EU-CELAC relations by studying the close connections between Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in the field of community museology. To address this challenge, EU-LAC-MUSEUMS assembles a team of leading academics, museum professionals and policy makers elected by the European and LAC Regional Alliances of the International Council of Museums (ICOM) (www.icom.museum). Together, we are committed to exploring the cultural, scientific and social dimensions of EU-LAC relations with a view to supporting the process of EU-CELAC cooperation outlined by the EU-CELAC Action Plan 2013-2015 in defining a common vision for the years to come. Through a series of thematic work packages we will pursue the theme of Museums and Community: Concepts, Experiences, and Sustainability in Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean. A good deal of research has been carried out into this subject at local, national, and regional levels in both EU and LAC, but a concerted bi-regional investigation is yet to appear. EU-LAC-MUSEUMS will overcome this gap in knowledge by creating parity of esteem and sustainable dialogue and co-operation between academia, museums and communities in each region. It will achieve this goal by pursuing work packages dealing with the cross cutting societal challenges of: a) Technology and Innovation for Bi-Regional Integration; b) Museum Education for Social Inclusion and Cohesion; c) Investment and Entrepreneurship for Sustainable Museums, and d) Exhibiting Migration and Gender. In so doing, we will push forward the agenda of the EU-CELAC Action Plan in museum practice and theory.


Taylor C.M.,Missouri Botanical Garden | Sanchez-Gonzalez J.,Museo Nacional de Costa Rica | Hammel B.,Missouri Botanical Garden | Hammel B.,Instituto Nacional Of Biodiversidad Inbio | And 4 more authors.
Novon | Year: 2011

The Neotropical genus Borojoa Cuatrec. (Rubiaceae) is now considered a synonym of Alibertia A. Rich. ex DC. Consequently, three species named in Borojoa and found in Costa Rica and Panama are transferred to Alibertia with these corresponding nomenclatural changes: the new combination A. atlantica (Dwyer) Delprete & C. H. Perss. is based on B. atlantica Dwyer, the new name A. dwyeri Delprete & C. H. Perss. is provided for B. panamensis Dwyer, and the new combination A. patinoi (Cuatrec.) Delprete & C. H. Perss. is provided for B. patinoi Cuatrec. Additionally, the species A. premontana C. M. Taylor is reduced to a variety of A. edulis (Rich.) A. Rich. ex DC., as A. edulis var. premontana (C. M. Taylor) Delprete & C. H. Perss. A lectotype is selected for A. edulis. The recent publication of Arachnothryx chimalaparum Lorence ex Borhidi designated a holotype deposited at MO, but no such specimen has been located; a lectotype is here chosen based on a duplicate of the holotype deposited at MEXU. The new species Notopleura recondita Hammel & C. M. Taylor of the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica can be distinguished from N. polyphlebia (Donn. Sm.) C. M. Taylor by its leaf blades with the secondary veins plane on the adaxial surface and its short cymose or paniculiform inflorescences. The new species Palicourea matamana C. M. Taylor of premontane forests of central-eastern Costa Rica can be separated from P. orosiana C. M. Taylor by its larger stipules, longer calyx lobes, and hirsute pubescence. The new species P. providenciana J. Sánchez-Gonz. & C. M. Taylor of montane forests in south-central Costa Rica can be separated from P. hammelii C. M. Taylor by its longer lanceolate stipule lobes, dark purple or yellow-flushed inflorescences, and shorter calyx lobes. The Panamanian plants treated previously as Psychotria acuminata subsp. boraginoides Dwyer are here considered to differ at the species level from P. acuminata Benth., and accordingly the new combination P. boraginoides (Dwyer) C. M. Taylor is here published for this species. Clarification of the identity of Cephaelis croatii Dwyer shows that it is a distinct species of Psychotria, and the new combination P. croatii (Dwyer) C. M. Taylor is published here for this species. The new species P. herrerana C. M. Taylor of central Costa Rica can be recognized by its combination of large, sessile, elliptic leaves, its large paniculiform inflorescences, and its relatively small corollas. Study of the Costa Rican plants previously called Rudgea thyrsiflora Donn. Sm. shows that these do not have the characters of Rudgea, but are similar to Psychotria racemosa Rich. and better included in this latter genus; the new name P. tsakiana C. M. Taylor is here published for this species. The new combination Simira panamensis (Dwyer) C. M. Taylor is published here based on the name Bathysa panamensis Dwyer, which has priority over the name S. darienensis Dwyer; both of the names Dwyer published are based on the same type specimen, thus the later name S. darienensis is illegitimate. Copyright © 2011 BioOne All rights reserved.


Armando E.Ch.,Museo Nacional de Costa Rica | Daniel S.A.,Institute Nacional Of Biodiversidad
Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas | Year: 2010

Fevillea narae, a new species from the cantón of Tarrazu along the pacific slope of Cordillera Talamanca, Costa Rica, south of San José is described and illustrated. This species is the second species of Fevillea for the Mesoamencan region.


Ramirez-Fernandez J.D.,University of Costa Rica | Cordoba-Alfaro J.,La Leona Eco lodge | Salas-Solano D.,University of Costa Rica | Duran A F.J.,Museo Nacional de Costa Rica | Rodriguez-Herrera B.,University of Costa Rica
Check List | Year: 2015

The Rufous Tree Rat, Diplomys labilis, is known to range geographically from Central Panamá to Colombia and probably Ecuador. It occurs in a variety of habitat types where it moves by the branches in the high canopy at night. We report the Rufous Tree Rat for Costa Rica, ranging outside its geographical distribution about 490 km west from its type locality. © 2015 Check List and Authors.


Baresch A.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute | Baresch A.,University of Chicago | Smith J.A.C.,University of Oxford | Winter K.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Premise of the study: The fossil leaf Karatophyllum bromelioides L. D. Gómez found in Costa Rica was proposed by Gómez (1972) to belong to the Bromeliaceae and to date from the middle Tertiary. If the age and affinity of this specimen were proven to be correct, it would constitute the oldest record of this large and ecologically diverse monocotyledonous family. Key results: Morphological features of the fossil (leaf dimensions, marginal spines, cuticular traces) indicate a close affinity with the extant bromeliad Aechmea magdalenae (André) Andréex Baker. Leaf thickness (1.6 mm at maximum) suggests that K. bromelioides L. D. Gómez performed CAM photosynthesis. The geological information does not corroborate the estimated age and location of the specimen; the fossil is suggested to be of more recent origin. Conclusions: The affinity of this fossil to Bromeliaceae was confirmed, but the uncertainties surrounding its age and collection locality mitigate against its use in inferences concerning the evolutionary history of the family. © 2011 Botanical Society of America.


Passiflora soliana (subg. Passiflora), a new species from the canton of Osa in the South Pacific of Costa Rica is described and illustrated. This new species is closely related to Passiflora brevifila Killip of higher elevations, but P. soliana is distinguished by its smaller flowers, without or nearly without pedicel, and mainly by morphology and smaller size of the floral bracts.


Cascante-Marin A.,Museo Nacional de Costa Rica | Meza-Picado V.,National University of Costa Rica | Estrada-Chavarria A.,Museo Nacional de Costa Rica
Plant Ecology | Year: 2011

Tropical premontane forests between 700 and 1,400 m.a.s.l. represent a particular component of the gamma diversity of neotropical ecosystems; however, the extent of information about their dynamics lags behind the more studied lowland rain forests. Data from three 1-ha permanent plots in a premontane forest in Costa Rica collected during an 11-year period (1998-2009) suggested a high tree turnover rate for this ecosystem (high mortality rate, λ = 2.4% and annual recruitment, μ = 2.6%). The floristic composition did not significantly change during the study period, but its high dynamism (2.4%) exceeded that of several reported values from highly diverse neotropical lowland rain forests. The documented decrease in abundance (8.6%) and basal area (14.3%) of trees ≥10 cm in DBH differs from the general trend of increase described for several lowland tropical rain forests in recent decades. We detected a significant population reduction (>15% of individuals from 1998 to 2009) in several relatively abundant tree species, whereas the populations of the three most dominant species remained nearly constant. The high tree turnover recorded for this premontane forest might not have affected tree diversity; but it might be promoting recruitment and growth of some tree species that may eventually become over-dominant in this ecosystem. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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