Soldan D.M.,University of Milan |
Petrizzo M.R.,University of Milan |
Silva I.P.,University of Milan |
Andrea C.A.U.,Museo Geologico Giovanni Capellini
Journal of Foraminiferal Research | Year: 2011
The evolution of planktic foraminifera in the PaleoceneEocene time interval is characterized by a high rate of diversification after the major extinction event observed at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary. An accelerated speciation rate resulted in the appearance of several new genera. Phylogenetic relationships among many of genera are still poorly understood. This study investigates the origin and phylogeny of the genus Igorina, which is characterized by a thick, nonspinose and incrusted wall. Igorina appears in Subzone P3a (early late Paleocene) and disappears in Zone P11 (middle Eocene). To date, nine species have been assigned to the genus Igorina (I. pusilla, I. trichotrocha, I. tadjikistanensis, I. convexa, I. albeari, I. laevigata, I. lodoensis, I. broedermanni, and I. anapetes) based on both wall texture and morphologic similarities. However, the taxonomic identification at species level is affected by several problems, mainly those resulting from poor descriptions and illustrations of the primary type specimens of several species. This study reconstructs the phylogeny and evolution of the igorinids through cladistic analysis by applying the method of parsimony. Phylogenetic relationships of the species assigned to Igorina are determined through stratocladistic analysis by using a data matrix of 23 taxa (including key species of Acarinina), 31 morphological characters (unordered), and a stratigraphic character (ordered) mapping the first occurrence of the taxa under investigation. The matrix (Appendix 1) was processed with PAUP4.0b10 software by using the heuristic search option to discover the most parsimonious trees. Results suggest that I. pusilla is the first representative of the Igorina lineage, and it is followed by I. laevigata, I. convexa, and I. albeari. Morphotypes of uncertain taxonomic identification have been coded and analyzed separately as morphotypes A-F to determine their ancestor-descendant relationships and to evaluate their validity as discrete species. As the result of our analysis, two new species are formally described as I. praecarinata (= morphotype A) and I. paraspiralis (= morphotypes C, E, and F). Finally, our analysis provides evidence that I. lodoensis, I. broedermanni, and I. anapetes are more closely related to Acarinina than to Igorina and clearly belong to a different lineage.
Scarponi D.,University of Bologna |
Bella G.D.,Museo Geologico Giovanni Capellini |
Dell'Angelo B.,Museo di Zoologia |
Huntley J.W.,University of Missouri
Acta Palaeontologica Polonica | Year: 2016
The late Badenian (early Serravallian) conoideans from the Pidhirtsi Beds of western Ukraine (central Paratethys) have been investigated by means of a comprehensive and easy-to-perform morphometric approach, allowing the characterisation of eleven species, of which seven are new to science: Mangelia angulicosta sp. nov., M. larga sp. nov., M. pseudorugulosa sp. nov., M. odovychenae sp. nov., Bela varovtsiana sp. nov., Bela? robusta sp. nov., Pyrgocythara turrispiralata sp. nov. Additionally we also identified Raphitoma cf. R. ringicula, Andonia sp. aff. A. transsylvanica, Teretia cf. T. turritelloides, and Haedropleura sp. aff. H. septangularis. The relative high number of new species documented, relative to the total previously known from this stratigraphic interval, is interpreted as resulting mainly from combined methodological (dearth of taxonomic studies on Ukrainian conoideans) and environmental (high degree of habitat fragmentation in reef setting) factors. The conoideans documented herein add important information regarding palaeoclimaticalogical and palaeobiogeographical interpretations of the Serravallian Paratethys. The conoideans display strong affinity at the species level and complete overlap at the genus level with Neogene Proto-Mediterranean-Atlantic conoideans, thereby challenging the interpretation of late Badenian Paratethyan macrofaunal assemblage endemism. The lack of typical warm-water indicators (e.g., Conidae, Clavatulidae, or Pseudomelatomidae) within the studied material supports the interpretation that the fauna thrived during the late phase and/or soon after the Middle Miocene Climatic Transition (14.2-13.8 Ma). © 2016 D. Scarponi et al.
Cau A.,Museo Geologico Giovanni Capellini |
Dalla Vecchia F.M.,Institute Catala Of Paleontologia M Crusafont |
Fabbri M.,University of Florence
Cretaceous Research | Year: 2013
In this study, we erect Sauroniops pachytholus gen. et sp. nov., a large-bodied theropod dinosaur from the Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) of Morocco, on the basis of an almost complete frontal showing a unique combination of features including a naso-frontal suture extended along 40% of the frontal length, a thick dome in the anterolateral corner of the dorsal surface, a trapezoidal prefrontal facet that is restricted to the anterodorsal margin of the lateral surface of the frontal with no participation in the orbital roof and separated from the lacrimal facet by a narrow vertical lamina, a hypertrophied 'D-shaped' lacrimal facet that is four times the anterior depth of the postorbital facet, and a raised posteromedial margin of the dorsal surface describing a saddle with the anterolateral dome and confluent with a series of anteromedial rugosities. Phylogenetic analysis found robust support for placing Sauroniops among the basal carcharodontosaurids and related to Eocarcharia, showed that some of the unusual features of the new theropod were convergently acquired by abelisaurids, and revealed a mosaic pattern in the evolution of the carcharodontosaurid skull table. The frontals of Sauroniops and Carcharodontosaurus, both from the 'Kem Kem compound assemblage' of Morocco, show comparable size but differ in the extent of the naso-frontal articulation, the shape and disposition of the prefrontal and lacrimal articulations, the development of dorsal ornamentation and the morphology of the supratemporal fossa. Among carcharodontosaurids, the skull table developed unique configurations among each lineage and appears diagnostic at the species-level. The dome-like frontal in Sauroniops may indicate head-butting behaviour in this taxon or evolved for visual display. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Dalla Vecchia F.M.,Institute Catala Of Paleontologia Icp |
Cau A.,Museo Geologico Giovanni Capellini
Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia | Year: 2011
A serrated tooth from the Coniacian-Santonian (Upper Cretaceous) Polazzo fossil site (Karst, NE Italy) is the first record of a notosuchian crocodyliform from Italy. Although it shares synapomorphies with teeth referred to the European genus Doratodon and with the Gondwanan genus Araripesucbus, it is distinct in the unusual combination of features, suggesting the presence of a yet unreported notosuchian taxon in the Adriatic-Dinaric Carbonate Platform located in the Tethys between the Afroarabian continent and the North European landmass during Late Cretaceous times. Notosuchians were typically terrestrial crocodyliforms, supporting the presence of emergent areas on the carbonate platform.
Candeiro C.R.A.,Federal University of Uberlandia |
Cau A.,Museo Geologico Giovanni Capellini |
Fanti F.,University of Bologna |
Nava W.R.,Museu de Paleontologia de Marilia |
Novas F.E.,Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia
Cretaceous Research | Year: 2012
In this study, we describe a small theropod dorsal vertebra from the Late Cretaceous Bauru Group (Brazil). The specimen is referred to the maniraptoran clade Unenlagiidae based on the following combination of characters: diapophyses short, wide and weakly inclined; dorsal surface of the neural spine transversely expanded; neural spine at least twice as high than it is long at mid-height; and deep lateral excavations of the ventrolateral surface of the neural spine. The vertebra belonged to an ontogenetically mature individual with an estimate total body length of around 1 m. This is the first evidence of Unenlagiidae in Brazil, a clade currently known only from Argentina and possibly Madagascar. The presence of large- to small-bodied forms in the Turonian-Santonian of South America indicates that Unenlagiinae were ecologically disparate during the first half of the Cretaceous. The Bauru vertebra shows a combination of avian-like, . Rahonavis-like and . Unenlagia-like features, making it a possible pivotal taxon in future phylogenetic investigations of intra- and interrelationships of unenlagiids. © 2012 .