Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale

Udine, Italy

Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale

Udine, Italy
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Mattucci F.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Oliveira R.,University of Porto | Bizzarri L.,University of Perugia | Vercillo F.,University of Perugia | And 8 more authors.
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Severe climatic changes during the Pleistocene shaped the distributions of temperate-adapted species. These species survived glaciations in classical southern refuges with more temperate climates, as well as in western and eastern peripheral Alpine temperate areas. We hypothesized that the European wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris) populations currently distributed in Italy differentiated in, and expanded from two distinct glacial refuges, located in the southern Apennines and at the periphery of the eastern Alps. This hypothesis was tested by genotyping 235 presumed European wildcats using a panel of 35 domestic cat-derived microsatellites. To provide support and controls for the analyses, 17 know wildcat x domestic cat hybrids and 17 Sardinian wildcats (F. s. libyca) were included. Results of Bayesian clustering and landscape genetic analyses showed that European wildcats in Italy are genetically subdivided into three well-defined clusters corresponding to populations sampled in: (1) the eastern Alps, (2) the peninsular Apennines, and (3) the island of Sicily. Furthermore, the peninsular cluster is split into two subpopulations distributed on the eastern (Apennine mountains and hills) and western (Maremma hills and lowlands) sides of the Apennine ridge. Simulations indicated Alpine, peninsular, and Sicilian wildcats were isolated during the Last Glacial Maximum. Population subdivision in the peninsula cluster of central Italy arose as consequence of a more recent expansions of historically or ecologically distinct European wildcat subpopulations associated with distinct the Continental or Mediterranean habitats. This study identifies previously unknown European wildcat conservation units and supports a deep phylogeographical history for Italian wildcats. © 2013 The Authors.

PubMed | University of Adelaide, University of Florence, Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale and University of Ferrara
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

Genetically-based reconstructions of the history of pig domestication in Europe are based on two major pillars: 1) the temporal changes of mitochondrial DNA lineages are related to domestication; 2) Near Eastern haplotypes which appeared and then disappeared in some sites across Europe are genetic markers of the first Near Eastern domestic pigs. We typed a small but informative fragment of the mitochondrial DNA in 23 Sus scrofa samples from a site in north eastern Italy (Biarzo shelter) which provides a continuous record across a 6,000 year time frame from the Upper Palaeolithic to the Neolithic. We additionally carried out several radiocarbon dating. We found that a rapid mitochondrial DNA turnover occurred during the Mesolithic, suggesting that substantial changes in the composition of pig mitochondrial lineages can occur naturally across few millennia independently of domestication processes. Moreover, so-called Near Eastern haplotypes were present here at least two millennia before the arrival of Neolithic package in the same area. Consequently, we recommend a re-evaluation of the previous idea that Neolithic farmers introduced pigs domesticated in the Near East, and that Mesolithic communities acquired domestic pigs via cultural exchanges, to include the possibility of a more parsimonious hypothesis of local domestication in Europe.

PubMed | Museo Civico di Science Naturali E. Caffi, Science journalist Swim Science writer in Italy, University of Padua, Museo di geologia e paleontologia and 17 more.
Type: | Journal: ZooKeys | Year: 2015

The Italian natural history museums are facing a critical situation, due to the progressive loss of scientific relevance, decreasing economic investments, and scarcity of personnel. This is extremely alarming, especially for ensuring the long-term preservation of the precious collections they host. Moreover, a commitment in fieldwork to increase scientific collections and concurrent taxonomic research are rarely considered priorities, while most of the activities are addressed to public events with political payoffs, such as exhibits, didactic meetings, expositions, and talks. This is possibly due to the absence of a national museum that would have better steered research activities and overall concepts for collection management. We here propose that Italian natural history museums collaborate to instate a metamuseum, by establishing a reciprocal interaction network aimed at sharing budgetary and technical resources, which would assure better coordination of common long-term goals and scientific activities.

Paoletti M.G.,University of Padua | Beggio M.,University of Padua | Dreon A.L.,University of Padua | Pamio A.,University of Padua | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Speleology | Year: 2011

The troglobitic beetle, Cansiliella servadeii (Leptodirini), has specialized mouthparts modified for browsing and feeding under percolating water on moonmilk, a speleothem formation in Grotta della Foos, Italy. Results from analyses of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen suggest that acquires and assimilates dissolved allochthonous organic carbon, inorganic nitrogen, and possibly phosphorus and other nutrients from the microbial fauna associated with moonmilk.

Neenan J.M.,University of Zürich | Li C.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Rieppel O.,The Field Museum | Bernardini F.,Abdus Salam International Center For Theoretical Physics | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Anatomy | Year: 2014

The placodonts of the Triassic period (~252-201 mya) represent one of the earliest and most extreme specialisations to a durophagous diet of any known reptile group. Exceptionally enlarged crushing tooth plates on the maxilla, dentary and palatine cooperated to form functional crushing areas in the buccal cavity. However, the extreme size of these teeth, combined with the unusual way they occluded, constrained how replacement occurred. Using an extensive micro-computed tomographic dataset of 11 specimens that span all geographic regions and placodont morphotypes, tooth replacement patterns were investigated. In addition, the previously undescribed dental morphologies and formulae of Chinese taxa are described for the first time and incorporated into the analysis. Placodonts have a unique tooth replacement pattern and results follow a phylogenetic trend. The plesiomorphic Placodus species show many replacement teeth at various stages of growth, with little or no discernible pattern. On the other hand, the more derived cyamodontoids tend to have fewer replacement teeth growing at any one time, replacing teeth unilaterally and/or in functional units, thus maintaining at least one functional crushing area at all times. The highly derived placochelyids have fewer teeth and, as a result, only have one or two replacement teeth in the upper jaw. This supports previous suggestions that these taxa had an alternative diet to other placodonts. Importantly, all specimens show at least one replacement tooth growing at the most posterior palatine tooth plates, indicating increased wear at this point and thus the most efficient functional crushing area. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

Selden P.A.,Natural History Museum in London | Dunlop J.A.,Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science | Simonetto L.,Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale
Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia | Year: 2016

A new and wellpreserved fossil whip scorpion (Arachnida: Uropygi: Thelyphonida) is described from the Late Carboniferous of the Carnic Alps, Friuti, Italy. It is referred to Parageralinura marsiglioi n. sp. The new specimen is the first Carboniferous arachnid to be described from mainland Italy and is possibly the youngest Palaeozoic thelyphonid. ,.

Selden P.A.,University of Kansas | Selden P.A.,Natural History Museum in London | Wilson G.D.F.,Saugatuck Natural History Laboratory | Simonetto L.,Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale | Dalla Vecchia F.M.,Institute Catala Of Paleontologia M Crusafont
Journal of Crustacean Biology | Year: 2016

The first asellote isopod from the fossil record is described here as Fornicaris calligarisi Wilson and Selden, n. gen. and sp. The two specimens, both probably males, showing dorsal morphology, come from loose material of the Dolomia di Forni Formation in the bed of the Tagliamento River below the town of Forni di Sotto, Udine Province, Friuli Venezia Giulia Autonomous Region, northeastern Italy. The Dolomia di Forni Formation is Triassic (Norian) in age, and the fossils date from approximately 210-215 Ma. Characters such as narrow, elongate eye stalks, tiny uropods, and enlarged first pereionite (found in terminal males) place the fossil within the Paramunnidae. Parsimony analysis using TNT placed the fossil within the Austrosignum-Munnogonium species complex. The robust pereiopods with hooked tips, elongate and robust carpus and propodus of pereiopod I, axial compression of the pereion, and the large size of the fossils (>2× related extant taxa) are features particular to the fossil genus and species. © 2016 Copyright 2016 by The Crustacean Society. Published by Brill NV, Leiden.

Lamsdell J.C.,University of Kansas | Simonetto L.,Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale | Selden P.A.,University of Kansas | Selden P.A.,Natural History Museum in London
Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia | Year: 2013

The first eurypterid known from Italy is described, as Adelophthalmus piussii n. sp. It comes from the Upper Carboniferous of the Carnic Alps (Friuli, NE Italy). Relationships with related species are discussed. Adelophthalmids are the commonest eurypterids of the late Palaeozoic, at which time the disparity of the order was waning. The new record enhances our knowledge of adelophthalmid distribution and diversity.

Serventi P.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Gnoli M.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Simonetto L.,Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale
Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana | Year: 2010

Silurian actinocerid cephalopods from the Italian side of the Carnic Alps are reported on the basis of newly collected material. Three actinocerid taxa, belonging to Armenoceratidae, Huroniidae, and Ormoceratidae families, are described and left in open nomenclature.

Bertolini M.,University of Ferrara | Cristiani E.,University of Cambridge | Modolo M.,Rovira i Virgili University | Visentini P.,Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale | Romandini M.,University of Ferrara
Quaternary International | Year: 2016

The eastern Alpine region of Italy represents a well-known area with regards to the study of Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene forager adaptations in the whole peninsula. Caves, shelters and open-air sites, which are numerous in this region, have yielded traces of human re-peopling from mountaineous environments since the Late Glacial and until the Early Holocene. However, the archaeological record of the region lacks evidence about long lasting forager occupations. Exceptionally for the eastern Alpine sector, Riparo Biarzo (Natisone Valley, Julian Prealps) has yielded important evidence of continuous forager frequentation from Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene.The authors discuss the results of the analyses of animal remains and shell ornaments recovered in the Late Epigravettian and Mesolithic units of the site and their significance for understanding continuity and changes in the subsistence and symbolic strategies during these periods in the region.Archaeological data indicate an abundance of wild boar remains during both the Late Pleistocene and the Early Holocene at Biarzo, which makes hunting strategies at this site unique with regards to other contemporary contexts of the eastern Alpine region. Also, modalities of selection, production and use of ornaments in the same periods reveal the existence of established exchange networks, mobility strategies and connectivity between the eastern Alpine and the North Adriatic regions during the Late Epigravettian and throughout the Mesolithic. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

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