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Cesareo R.,University of Sassari | Cesareo R.,CNR Institute of Nanostructured Materials | Bustamante A.D.,National Major San Marcos University | Fabian J.S.,National Major San Marcos University | And 24 more authors.
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing | Year: 2013

Three types of alloys were recognized when analyzing pre-Columbian artifacts from the North of Peru: gold, silver, and copper alloys; gilded copper and silver; silvered copper; tumbaga, i.e., copper or silver enriched on gold at the surface by depletion gilding. In this paper, a method is described to differentiate gold alloys from gilded copper and from copper-gold tumbaga, and silver alloys from silvered copper and copper-silver tumbaga. This method is based on the use of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence, i.e., on a sophisticated analysis of XRF-spectra carrying out an accurate determination of Cu(K α /K β ), Ag(K α /K β ), Au(L α /L β ), and Au-L α /Cu-K α or Ag-K α /Cu-K α ratios. That implies a dedicated software for the quantitative determination of the area of X-ray peaks. This method was first checked by a relevant number of standard samples and then it was applied to pre-Columbian alloys from the North of Peru. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Cesareo R.,University of Sassari | Bustamante A.,University of Lima | Fabian J.,University of Lima | Calza C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | And 6 more authors.
X-Ray Spectrometry | Year: 2010

A funerary goldmask from the Museum of Sicán, Ferrañafe, Peruwas analyzed in 30 different areas using a portable equipment using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. It was deduced from the measurements that the main sheet of the mask and the majority of the pendants have a similar composition and are made of tumbaga, which means a poor gold alloy enriched at the surface by depletion gilding, and have a similar 'equivalent' gilding thickness of about 5 μm. The nose, also on tumbaga, has different composition and a thickness of about 8 μm. The clamps are on gilded or on silvered copper. The red pigment dispersed on the surface of themask is cinnabar. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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