Museo Arqueologico Nacional

Serrano, Spain

Museo Arqueologico Nacional

Serrano, Spain
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Rovira S.,Museo Arqueologico Nacional | Renzi M.,Qatar University
Materials and Manufacturing Processes | Year: 2017

This paper focuses on the characterization of technological processes used for producing copper, tin-bronze and silver in the Prehistory and Protohistory of the Iberian Peninsula. To this purpose, slags and slaggy materials have been analyzed by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). In particular, the results obtained allow us to characterize the main technological features for smelting copper ores since the 3rd millennium BCE, a process that was performed in simple fire structures using a non-slagging process. Regarding tin-bronze, the analytical data suggest that prehistoric bronzes were obtained by co-smelting copper and tin oxidic ores or by cementation of copper with cassiterite. Finally, some metallurgical debris dated to the Phoenician time, in the early 1st millennium BCE, points to the extraction of silver from argentiferous copper ores employing a method similar to the 15th century liquation process. This is a unique discovery to date as this type of materials is unknown in any other Mediterranean region settled by the Phoenicians. © 2017 Taylor & Francis

Zucchiatti A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Climent Font A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Fernandez Esquivel P.,Fundacion Museos | Rovira Llorens S.,Museo Arqueologico Nacional | And 2 more authors.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2014

Technological characterization of pre-Hispanic gold metallurgy has still a wide deficit of analytical data. A set of 103 pieces from the so called "Quimbaya's treasure" (QT) and the "Costa Rica collection" (CRC) of the Museo de America of Madrid were submitted to IBA analysis (PIXE and RBS) at the CMAM in three phases and the metal composition was determined. Only in a limited number of cases, due to the dramatic erosion of the gilded layer, produced by abrasive cleaning methods applied after the discovery and before the seventies, it was possible to determine also the sequence of layers, which gives information on the manufacture technology and the type and purity of the metals. PIXE results are reported and discussed. Data show that the CRC objects have very high gold levels (>80% in weight) while the QT have a more variable composition with significant Cu levels associated to the so called Tumbaga-alloy. In the cases where polishing had a tolerable effect, PIXE (and RBS), point to depletion gilding as a standard finishing process in the Costa Rica production, resulting in a gold rich surface alloy, while the variable composition of the QT objects may well be linked to deliberate colour choice. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Cacho C.,Museo Arqueologico Nacional | Martos J.A.,Museo Arqueologico Nacional | Yravedra J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Ortega P.,University of Salamanca | And 5 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

The use of space inside La Peña de Estebanvela Rock-shelter and the activities carried out away from the site are analysed in this article in order to reconstruct the economic and social behaviour of the human group that occupied the site in the Upper Magdalenian (15,010-14,610 cal BP and 14,290-13,730 cal BP). Level III, which is geologically homogeneous and has yielded a large lithic and faunal record was selected for this purpose. The micro-spatial analysis of the level has differentiated two significant units in the central sector of the deposit which may correspond to an area used for intensive flint knapping (Unit 2), and a multi-functional area where hunting weapons were prepared, prey was butchered and defleshed, and hides were processed (Unit 3). The study of the use of the territory around the site reveals a strategy of diversified hunting, especially between late spring and early autumn, oriented towards ibex, horse, red deer and, to a lesser extent, chamois, roe deer and lynxes. This activity was complemented by the use of other resources, like fishing and gathering plants. Stocks of flint and personal ornaments made from marine molluscs confirm the territorial mobility of the residents of La Peña de Estebanvela. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Cacho C.,Museo Arqueologico Nacional | Martos J.A.,Museo Arqueologico Nacional | Jorda-Pardo J.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Yravedra J.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 8 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2012

The chronostratigraphic framework of the Magdalenian in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula currently covers the period 21,440-21,040 cal BP (level 2 of the Cueva del Gato site at Epila, Province of Zaragoza) to 12,770-12,570 cal BP (level I of the La Peña de Estebanvela site, Ayllón, Province of Segovia). These dates embrace times of strong climatic oscillation, beginning with very rigorous environmental conditions (stage GS2) and ending with a temperate climate (Alleröd); over this period, extreme events such as Heinrich event 1 occurred. However, little information is available that would allow the environments through which human groups moved during the Late Last Glacial of the Iberian interior to be characterised. The La Peña de Estebanvela site is something of an exception in that its archaeological features allow the reconstruction of the surrounding environment, and provide information on how natural resources may have been used. The faunal remains represented at this site reflect changes in palaeoecology over time. Taphonomic analysis of recovered macromammals and lagomorphs shows that these animals were brought to the site, butchered and consumed. The available data on seasonality fix the occupation of levels I-III from the spring to the autumn. Certain types of wood were collected for use as firewood. Other elements found in the record (personal ornaments, mobiliary art and raw materials) provide evidence that the people that occupied the site moved over a more extensive territory. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Pascual C.,Institute Ceramica | Criado E.,Institute Ceramica | Recio P.,Institute Ceramica | Martinez R.,Institute Ceramica | And 3 more authors.
Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Ceramica y Vidrio | Year: 2011

This work deals with an original class of porcelain produced under the direction of Bartolomé Sureda in the last years (1803-1808) of the Royal Porcelain Factory of Buen Retiro. The results of the chemical and mineralogical analysis of a selection of tableware, tiles and sculpture shards, found in the archaeological excavation (1996) of the site where the factory was built, confirm the production of a new hard-paste porcelain where the kaolin was substituted by a magnesium clay, the sepiolite. The characteristics of pastes and glazes and the investigation of the historic and scientific contexts of porcelain and white earthenware in Europe have allowed establishing the reasons and the technical parameters of this production. Replicas of the paste were done in the laboratory to assert the raw materials and the firing conditions of this porcelain.

Ramirez-Sanchez M.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Suarez-Rivero J.-P.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Costas M.-A.,Museo Arqueologico Nacional
Profesional de la Informacion | Year: 2014

The possibilities of image-based modeling (IBM) as a low-cost 3D scanning technique for modeling Roman inscriptions are analysed. The study, carried out at the National Museum of Archaeology (Madrid), examined a wide range of Roman inscriptions (on stone, bronze and clay). The results obtained have proved to be excellent for cataloguing, studying and disseminating this type of historical documentation. The 3D Roman inscriptions can be incorporated into digital epigraphy projects in progress, allowing access via personal computers and mobile devices at no extra cost to researchers.

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