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Bad Münster am Stein-Ebernburg, Germany

Ertz D.,National Botanic Garden | Bungartz F.,Charles Darwin Foundation | Diederich P.,Musee National DHistoire Naturelle | Tibell L.,Uppsala University
Lichenologist | Year: 2011

Based on morphological, anatomical, chemical, ecological and molecular evidence, Blarneya is synonymized here with Tylophoron. The molecular phylogeny derived from sequences obtained from sporodochia of Blarneya places this genus, described to accommodate an anamorphic lichen with white cushion-shaped sporodochia, within Tylophoron. This conclusion is further supported by the discovery of Tylophoron-type ascomata emerging directly from thalli with Blarneya-type sporodochia and producing identical hyaline conidia. In one specimen pycnidia were also observed. This represents a surprising variety of morphologically different conidiomata. A different anamorphic type was previously reported from Tylophoron, and this is confirmed here by molecular analysis for T. moderatum: besides thalli with ascomata this species has anamorphic thalli with an irregularly delimited brown sporodochial felt and brown conidia. Ascomata are not known from these entirely anamorphic thalli, whereas they do occur infrequently in Tylophoron species with Blarneya-type sporodochia. A key to all currently accepted species of Tylophoron is provided. In addition to the corticolous Tylophoron hibernicum, confined to humid forests, two saxicolous species with Blarneya-type sporodochia are described here as new: T. galapagoense, known only from Galapagos, differs from T. hibernicum by a thicker, more compact, beige rather than white, more strongly C+ red thallus, growing below sheltered rock overhangs in dry forests; T. stalactiticum has a C thallus with stipitate, white, C+ red sporodochia; the species is known only from a single locality in Tenerife, on a large slope with volcanic boulders. © 2011 British Lichen Society.

Lawrey J.D.,George Mason University | Diederich P.,Musee National DHistoire Naturelle | Nelsen M.P.,University of Chicago | Freebury C.,Canadian Museum of Nature | And 3 more authors.
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2012

More than twenty species of lichenicolous fungi have been described in Phoma, a large anamorphic genus of primarily plant-associated pathogens with broad geographic distributions. We obtained nuclear and mitochondrial rDNA sequences from 19 fungal cultures isolated from specimens representing four described and two undescribed lichenicolous species in the genus. Our multilocus phylogeny indicates that lichenicolous Phoma species represent at least two phylogenetically distinct clades in the Phaeosphaeriaceae, one including a new species, Phoma puncteliae, isolated from a specimen of Punctelia rudecta collected inMaryland, USA, and another group of primarily lichenicolous species. This latter group includes four described lichenicolous Phoma species, an unidentified melanized rock fungus, and a new lichenicolous Phoma species isolated from Xanthomendoza species collected in Canada that we are naming P. xanthomendozae. Some specimens in this clade collected from different lichen genera and species were found to be very similar genetically, which calls into question the recent practice of recognizing lichenicolous Phoma species mainly by differences in host preference. © The Mushroom Research Foundation 2012.

Ertz D.,Botanic Garden Meise | Diederich P.,Musee National DHistoire Naturelle
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2015

Melaspileaceae is a heterogeneous group of Ascomycota including lichenized, lichenicolous and saprobic fungi. A first phylogenetic study of Melaspileaceae is presented and is based on mtSSU and nuLSU sequence data. We obtained 49 new sequences for 28 specimens representing 15 species. The genera Buelliella, Hemigrapha, Karschia, Labrocarpon and Melaspilea s. str. are included in a molecular phylogeny for the first time. Melaspileaceae is recovered as polyphyletic, with members placed in two main lineages of Dothideomycetes. Melaspilea s. str. is included in Eremithallales. Eremithallaceae is placed in synonymy with Melaspileaceae. The genus Encephalographa is placed in Melaspileaceae. The genera Buelliella, Karschia, Labrocarpon and several members of Melaspilea are demonstrated to belong to Asterinales, while Hemigrapha is confirmed in this order. The genera Melaspileella, Melaspileopsis, Stictographa are reinstated for former Melaspilea species now placed in Asterinales. Karschia cezannei is described as new, and the new combinations Melaspilea costaricensis, M. enteroleuca, M. urceolata, Melaspileella proximella and Melaspileopsis diplasiospora are made. Melaspileaceae as newly defined includes lichenized and saprobic species. The lichenicolous and saprobic life styles form different intermixed lineages in Asterinales that do not include lichenized taxa. The phylogenetic data provide a first framework for dismantling further the genus Melaspilea for which most of the species are expected to belong to Asterinales. © 2015, School of Science.

Diederich P.,Musee National DHistoire Naturelle | Lawrey J.D.,George Mason University | Sikaroodi M.,George Mason University | Van Den Boom P.P.G.,Arafura 16 | Ertz D.,Jardin botanique national de Belgique
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2012

Morphological, anatomical, chemical and molecular data suggest that a relatively common lichenicolous coelomycete on Lecanora conizaeoides is conspecific with Phoma cytospora, previously known only from parmelioid lichens, and that further populations on Cladonia and Pertusaria belong to the same species. This species is distinguished from Phoma by several taxonomically important characters and obviously represents a previously unrecognized genus, for which the name Briancoppinsia is introduced. Phylogenetic analyses using nuLSU and mtSSU sequences of isolates obtained in pure culture suggest that the new genus belongs to the Arthoniaceae (Arthoniales). This is the first obligate lichenicolous, non-lichenized anamorph confirmed to belong to the Arthoniales based on molecular data. © Kevin D. Hyde 2011.

Millanes A.M.,Rey Juan Carlos University | Diederich P.,Musee National DHistoire Naturelle | Ekman S.,Uppsala University | Wedin M.,Swedish Museum of Natural History
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

The Tremellomycetes (Agaricomycotina, Basidiomycota, Fungi) are a nutritionally heterogeneous group comprising saprotrophs, animal parasites, and fungicolous species (fungal-inhabiting, including lichen-inhabiting). The relationships of many species, particularly those with a lichenicolous habit, have never been investigated by molecular methods. We present a phylogeny of the Tremellomycetes based on three nuclear DNA ribosomal markers (nSSU, 5.8S and nLSU), representing all main taxonomic groups and life forms, including lichenicolous taxa. The Cystofilobasidiales, Filobasidiales, Holtermanniales, and Tremellales (including the Trichosporonales) are recovered as monophyletic, but this is not the case for the Tremellomycetes. We suggest, however, that the Cystofilobasidiales tentatively continue to be included in the Tremellomycetes. As currently circumscribed, the Filobasidiaceae, Sirobasidiaceae, Syzygosporaceae and Tremellaceae are non-monophyletic. Cuniculitremaceae, Sirobasidiaceae and Tetragoniomycetaceae are nested within Tremellaceae. The lichenicolous species currently included within the Tremellomycetes belong in this group, distributed across the Filobasidiales and Tremellales. Lichen-inhabiting taxa do not form a monophyletic group; they are distributed in several clades and sometimes intermixed with taxa of other nutritional habits. Character state reconstruction indicates that two morphological traits claimed to characterize groups in the Tremellomycetes (the basidium habit and basidium septation) are highly homoplastic. Comparative phylogenetic methods suggest that the transitions between single and catenulate basidia in the Tremellales are consistent with a punctuational model of evolution whereas basidium septation is likely to have evolved under a graduational model in the clade comprising the Holtermanniales, Filobasidiales, and Tremellales. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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