Musee National DHistoire Naturelle

Bad Münster am Stein-Ebernburg, Germany

Musee National DHistoire Naturelle

Bad Münster am Stein-Ebernburg, Germany
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Ertz D.,National Botanic Garden | Bungartz F.,Charles Darwin Foundation | Diederich P.,Musee National dHistoire Naturelle | Tibell L.,Uppsala University
Lichenologist | Year: 2011

Based on morphological, anatomical, chemical, ecological and molecular evidence, Blarneya is synonymized here with Tylophoron. The molecular phylogeny derived from sequences obtained from sporodochia of Blarneya places this genus, described to accommodate an anamorphic lichen with white cushion-shaped sporodochia, within Tylophoron. This conclusion is further supported by the discovery of Tylophoron-type ascomata emerging directly from thalli with Blarneya-type sporodochia and producing identical hyaline conidia. In one specimen pycnidia were also observed. This represents a surprising variety of morphologically different conidiomata. A different anamorphic type was previously reported from Tylophoron, and this is confirmed here by molecular analysis for T. moderatum: besides thalli with ascomata this species has anamorphic thalli with an irregularly delimited brown sporodochial felt and brown conidia. Ascomata are not known from these entirely anamorphic thalli, whereas they do occur infrequently in Tylophoron species with Blarneya-type sporodochia. A key to all currently accepted species of Tylophoron is provided. In addition to the corticolous Tylophoron hibernicum, confined to humid forests, two saxicolous species with Blarneya-type sporodochia are described here as new: T. galapagoense, known only from Galapagos, differs from T. hibernicum by a thicker, more compact, beige rather than white, more strongly C+ red thallus, growing below sheltered rock overhangs in dry forests; T. stalactiticum has a C thallus with stipitate, white, C+ red sporodochia; the species is known only from a single locality in Tenerife, on a large slope with volcanic boulders. © 2011 British Lichen Society.

Reckinger C.,Musee national dhistoire naturelle | Colling G.,Musee national dhistoire naturelle | Matthies D.,University of Marburg
Restoration Ecology | Year: 2010

Changes in land-use have resulted in the decline of many formerly common plants of nutrient-poor grasslands in Europe. Recently, extensification schemes have been applied at sites in order to restore former habitat conditions. However, the establishment of rare and endangered plants is often severely limited by the lack of propagules both in the seed bank and in the surrounding landscape. For such species deliberate introductions may be necessary to overcome these limitations. In a 7-year study, we assessed the importance of gaps created by sod cutting, of plant stage, and of plant origin for the restoration of populations of Scorzonera humilis, a threatened long-lived plant of nutrient-poor, wet grasslands. The effect of gaps on seedling emergence and survival varied strongly among the 12 sites. Gaps increased survival at nutrient-rich, but reduced it at nutrient-poor sites. Remarkably, young plants grown for only 5 weeks in the laboratory and transplanted into the same sites had much higher survival than seedlings from seeds sown and there were no differences in survival between nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor sites. The field performance of the plants from the various populations of origin varied depending on the site into which they were transplanted, indicating genotype by environment interactions and genetic differentiation among populations, but there was no home-site advantage. While sowing only succeeded in producing adult plants in five sites, transplanting succeeded at 10 sites. Our results suggest that transplanting young plants could be a much more effective and faster way to establish new populations than sowing seeds. © 2009 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

Ertz D.,Botanic Garden Meise | Diederich P.,Musee national d'histoire naturelle
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2015

Melaspileaceae is a heterogeneous group of Ascomycota including lichenized, lichenicolous and saprobic fungi. A first phylogenetic study of Melaspileaceae is presented and is based on mtSSU and nuLSU sequence data. We obtained 49 new sequences for 28 specimens representing 15 species. The genera Buelliella, Hemigrapha, Karschia, Labrocarpon and Melaspilea s. str. are included in a molecular phylogeny for the first time. Melaspileaceae is recovered as polyphyletic, with members placed in two main lineages of Dothideomycetes. Melaspilea s. str. is included in Eremithallales. Eremithallaceae is placed in synonymy with Melaspileaceae. The genus Encephalographa is placed in Melaspileaceae. The genera Buelliella, Karschia, Labrocarpon and several members of Melaspilea are demonstrated to belong to Asterinales, while Hemigrapha is confirmed in this order. The genera Melaspileella, Melaspileopsis, Stictographa are reinstated for former Melaspilea species now placed in Asterinales. Karschia cezannei is described as new, and the new combinations Melaspilea costaricensis, M. enteroleuca, M. urceolata, Melaspileella proximella and Melaspileopsis diplasiospora are made. Melaspileaceae as newly defined includes lichenized and saprobic species. The lichenicolous and saprobic life styles form different intermixed lineages in Asterinales that do not include lichenized taxa. The phylogenetic data provide a first framework for dismantling further the genus Melaspilea for which most of the species are expected to belong to Asterinales. © 2015, School of Science.

Lawrey J.D.,George Mason University | Diederich P.,Musee National DHistoire Naturelle | Nelsen M.P.,University of Chicago | Freebury C.,Canadian Museum of Nature | And 3 more authors.
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2012

More than twenty species of lichenicolous fungi have been described in Phoma, a large anamorphic genus of primarily plant-associated pathogens with broad geographic distributions. We obtained nuclear and mitochondrial rDNA sequences from 19 fungal cultures isolated from specimens representing four described and two undescribed lichenicolous species in the genus. Our multilocus phylogeny indicates that lichenicolous Phoma species represent at least two phylogenetically distinct clades in the Phaeosphaeriaceae, one including a new species, Phoma puncteliae, isolated from a specimen of Punctelia rudecta collected inMaryland, USA, and another group of primarily lichenicolous species. This latter group includes four described lichenicolous Phoma species, an unidentified melanized rock fungus, and a new lichenicolous Phoma species isolated from Xanthomendoza species collected in Canada that we are naming P. xanthomendozae. Some specimens in this clade collected from different lichen genera and species were found to be very similar genetically, which calls into question the recent practice of recognizing lichenicolous Phoma species mainly by differences in host preference. © The Mushroom Research Foundation 2012.

Vanhooydonck B.,University of Antwerp | Cruz F.B.,CONICET | Abdala C.S.,Institute Herpetologia FML | Azocar D.L.M.,CONICET | And 2 more authors.
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2010

Although differential selective pressures on males and females of the same species may result in sex-specific evolutionary trajectories, comparative studies of adaptive radiations have largely neglected within-species variation. In this study, we explore the potential effects of natural selection, sexual selection, or a combination of both, on bite performance in males and females of 19 species of Liolaemus lizards. More specifically, we study the evolution of bite performance, and compare evolutionary relationships between the variation in head morphology, bite performance, ecological variation and sexual dimorphism between males and females. Our results suggest that in male Liolaemus, the variation in bite force is at least partly explained by the variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism in head width (i.e. our estimate of the intensity of sexual selection), and neither bite force nor the morphological variables were correlated with diet (i.e. our proxy for natural selection). On the contrary, in females, the variation in bite force and head size can, to a certain extent, be explained by variation in diet. These results suggest that whereas in males, sexual selection seems to be operating on bite performance, in the case of females, natural selection seems to be the most likely and most important selective pressure driving the variation in head size. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London.

Diederich P.,Musee National dHistoire Naturelle | Lawrey J.D.,George Mason University | Sikaroodi M.,George Mason University | Van Den Boom P.P.G.,Arafura 16 | Ertz D.,Jardin Botanique National de Belgique
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2012

Morphological, anatomical, chemical and molecular data suggest that a relatively common lichenicolous coelomycete on Lecanora conizaeoides is conspecific with Phoma cytospora, previously known only from parmelioid lichens, and that further populations on Cladonia and Pertusaria belong to the same species. This species is distinguished from Phoma by several taxonomically important characters and obviously represents a previously unrecognized genus, for which the name Briancoppinsia is introduced. Phylogenetic analyses using nuLSU and mtSSU sequences of isolates obtained in pure culture suggest that the new genus belongs to the Arthoniaceae (Arthoniales). This is the first obligate lichenicolous, non-lichenized anamorph confirmed to belong to the Arthoniales based on molecular data. © Kevin D. Hyde 2011.

Untereiner W.A.,Brandon University | Gueidan C.,Natural History Museum in London | Orr M.-J.,Brandon University | Diederich P.,Musee National dHistoire Naturelle
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2011

The genus Capronia includes a number of lichenicolous (lichen-inhabiting) species, none of which have previously been characterized in vitro or considered in molecular phylogenetic studies. We cultured Capronia peltigerae from Peltigera rufescens and report here the growth of this species on a variety of media and its phylogenetic position based on the analyses of nuclear ribosomal RNA, mitochondrial ribosomal RNA, and RNA polymerase II (RPB1) gene sequences. This species differs from the majority of Capronia studied in axenic culture in lacking a conidial anamorph. Phylogenetic analyses position C. peltigerae outside the Herpotrichiellaceae within a robustly supported basal lineage of the Chaetothyriales composed primarily of melanized, rock-inhabiting anamorphic fungi. Our results demonstrate that Capronia, as circumscribed currently, is polyphyletic, but they do not resolve the relationship of C. peltigerae with members of the Chaetothyriaceae. © 2011 Kevin D. Hyde.

Millanes A.M.,Rey Juan Carlos University | Diederich P.,Musee National Dhistoire Naturelle | Ekman S.,Uppsala University | Wedin M.,Swedish Museum of Natural History
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

The Tremellomycetes (Agaricomycotina, Basidiomycota, Fungi) are a nutritionally heterogeneous group comprising saprotrophs, animal parasites, and fungicolous species (fungal-inhabiting, including lichen-inhabiting). The relationships of many species, particularly those with a lichenicolous habit, have never been investigated by molecular methods. We present a phylogeny of the Tremellomycetes based on three nuclear DNA ribosomal markers (nSSU, 5.8S and nLSU), representing all main taxonomic groups and life forms, including lichenicolous taxa. The Cystofilobasidiales, Filobasidiales, Holtermanniales, and Tremellales (including the Trichosporonales) are recovered as monophyletic, but this is not the case for the Tremellomycetes. We suggest, however, that the Cystofilobasidiales tentatively continue to be included in the Tremellomycetes. As currently circumscribed, the Filobasidiaceae, Sirobasidiaceae, Syzygosporaceae and Tremellaceae are non-monophyletic. Cuniculitremaceae, Sirobasidiaceae and Tetragoniomycetaceae are nested within Tremellaceae. The lichenicolous species currently included within the Tremellomycetes belong in this group, distributed across the Filobasidiales and Tremellales. Lichen-inhabiting taxa do not form a monophyletic group; they are distributed in several clades and sometimes intermixed with taxa of other nutritional habits. Character state reconstruction indicates that two morphological traits claimed to characterize groups in the Tremellomycetes (the basidium habit and basidium septation) are highly homoplastic. Comparative phylogenetic methods suggest that the transitions between single and catenulate basidia in the Tremellales are consistent with a punctuational model of evolution whereas basidium septation is likely to have evolved under a graduational model in the clade comprising the Holtermanniales, Filobasidiales, and Tremellales. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Diederich P.,Musee National dHistoire Naturelle | Ertz D.,Jardin Botanique National de Belgique | Lawrey J.D.,George Mason University | Sikaroodi M.,George Mason University | Untereiner W.A.,Brandon University
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2013

The lichenicolous anamorphic fungus Sclerococcum parmeliae was isolated in pure culture, and ITS, nuLSU and mtSSU sequences were obtained from these isolates. For comparison, sequences from S. sphaerale, the generic type, were obtained directly from freshly collected specimens. Phylogenetic analyses place S. sphaerale with species of Dactylospora and an unidentified lichen-inhabiting isolate in a strongly supported clade that is sister to a lineage comprising members of the Chaetothyriales and Pyrenulales. In contrast, S. parmeliae is inferred as a member of the Herpotrichiellaceae (Chaetothyriales) and belongs to a robustly supported clade that also includes species of Cladophialophora, Capronia semiimmersa, and Phialophora verrucosa. Within the Herpotrichiellaceae, S. parmeliae most closely resembles members of the anamorph genus Cladophialophora. Accordingly, we propose the transfer of S. parmeliae and the morphologically similar species S. cladoniae, S. hawksworthii and S. normandinae to Cladophialophora. A new lichenicolous species, Clad. megalosporae, collected twice on Megalospora in Florida and Papua New Guinea, is also described. © 2012 Mushroom Research Foundation.

Ertz D.,Jardin Botanique National de Belgique | Lawrey J.D.,George Mason University | Common R.S.,534 Fenton St | Diederich P.,Musee National dHistoire Naturelle
Fungal Diversity | Year: 2014

Lichenicolous fungi belonging to the anamorph-typified genus Phaeosporobolus and to the teleomorph-typified genus Lichenostigma were isolated in pure culture or sequenced directly, with nuLSU and mtSSU sequences obtained. Phylogenetic analyses place the species of Phaeosporobolus in a strongly supported clade with the generic type of Lichenostigma (L. maureri), the genus Phaeococcomyces and several melanized rock-inhabiting isolates. This strongly supported nonlichenized lineage is sister to the primarily lichenized Arthoniales in the Arthoniomycetes and is here described as the Lichenostigmatales. The new order is characterized by cells multiplying by budding, either representing black yeasts, or species in which conidiomata and ascomata are entirely made of an organised agglomeration of spherical yeast-like cells. This way of life is not only very different from all other Arthoniomycetes that exist only in the mycelial stage, but ascomata and conidiomata representing a dense and organised agglomeration of yeast cells might be unique amongst fungi. A further difference with the Arthoniales is the absence of paraphysoids. Phylogenetic results suggest that Phaeosporobolus usneae is the asexual stage of Lichenostigma maureri. Most species of Phaeosporobolus are transferred to the genus Lichenostigma except P. trypethelii, for which the new genus Etayoa is described. The genus Diederimyces is reduced into synonymy with Lichenostigma. Several other members of Lichenostigma are placed in the Dothideomycetes and are intermixed with Lichenothelia species. © 2013 Mushroom Research Foundation.

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