Musee cantonal de zoologie

La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland

Musee cantonal de zoologie

La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland

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Leys M.,Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology | Leys M.,ETH Zurich | Keller I.,Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics | Rasanen K.,Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2016

Background: Many species contain evolutionarily distinct groups that are genetically highly differentiated but morphologically difficult to distinguish (i.e., cryptic species). The presence of cryptic species poses significant challenges for the accurate assessment of biodiversity and, if unrecognized, may lead to erroneous inferences in many fields of biological research and conservation. Results: We tested for cryptic genetic variation within the broadly distributed alpine mayfly Baetis alpinus across several major European drainages in the central Alps. Bayesian clustering and multivariate analyses of nuclear microsatellite loci, combined with phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA, were used to assess population genetic structure and diversity. We identified two genetically highly differentiated lineages (A and B) that had no obvious differences in regional distribution patterns, and occurred in local sympatry. Furthermore, the two lineages differed in relative abundance, overall levels of genetic diversity as well as patterns of population structure: lineage A was abundant, widely distributed and had a higher level of genetic variation, whereas lineage B was less abundant, more prevalent in spring-fed tributaries than glacier-fed streams and restricted to high elevations. Subsequent morphological analyses revealed that traits previously acknowledged as intraspecific variation of B. alpinus in fact segregated these two lineages. Conclusions: Taken together, our findings indicate that even common and apparently ecologically well-studied species may consist of reproductively isolated units, with distinct evolutionary histories and likely different ecology and evolutionary potential. These findings emphasize the need to investigate hidden diversity even in well-known species to allow for appropriate assessment of biological diversity and conservation measures. © 2016 Leys et al.


Robinson C.T.,Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology | Robinson C.T.,ETH Zurich | Thompson C.,Western Wyoming Community College | Lods-Crozet B.,Musee Cantonal de Zoologie | And 3 more authors.
Fundamental and Applied Limnology | Year: 2016

Chironomids generally dominate macroinvertebrate assemblages in alpine streams. This study compared chironomid assemblages inhabiting 51 non-glacial streams in six alpine catchments in the Swiss Alps in 2012. Total abundances ranged from 3 to ca. 1900 individuals per sample with 42 taxa identified overall. Common taxa differed among catchments and among streams within a catchment (5 taxa comprised > 95 % of the total abundances among streams). Taxon richness varied from 18 to 29 between catchments and between 2 and 16 between individual streams. Beta diversity (Bw) ranged from 1.27 to 3.03 between streams within catchments. The most common taxa included Diamesa spp. (mostly D. zernyi-cinerella group), Pseudodiamesa spp. (mostly P. branickii), Pseudokiefferiella parva, Corynoneura sp., Eukiefferiella spp., Orthocladius frigidus, Parametriocnemus stylatus, and Micropsectra spp. Nineteen taxa (45 %) were found at < 5 % of the streams and 8 taxa (19 %) were exclusive to one stream alone. These results indicate a highly diverse and spatially-structured chironomid assemblage with a prevalence towards rarity in these high elevation alpine catchments. © 2016 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany.


PubMed | Musee cantonal de Zoologie, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics and Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
Type: | Journal: BMC evolutionary biology | Year: 2016

Many species contain evolutionarily distinct groups that are genetically highly differentiated but morphologically difficult to distinguish (i.e., cryptic species). The presence of cryptic species poses significant challenges for the accurate assessment of biodiversity and, if unrecognized, may lead to erroneous inferences in many fields of biological research and conservation.We tested for cryptic genetic variation within the broadly distributed alpine mayfly Baetis alpinus across several major European drainages in the central Alps. Bayesian clustering and multivariate analyses of nuclear microsatellite loci, combined with phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA, were used to assess population genetic structure and diversity. We identified two genetically highly differentiated lineages (A and B) that had no obvious differences in regional distribution patterns, and occurred in local sympatry. Furthermore, the two lineages differed in relative abundance, overall levels of genetic diversity as well as patterns of population structure: lineage A was abundant, widely distributed and had a higher level of genetic variation, whereas lineage B was less abundant, more prevalent in spring-fed tributaries than glacier-fed streams and restricted to high elevations. Subsequent morphological analyses revealed that traits previously acknowledged as intraspecific variation of B. alpinus in fact segregated these two lineages.Taken together, our findings indicate that even common and apparently ecologically well-studied species may consist of reproductively isolated units, with distinct evolutionary histories and likely different ecology and evolutionary potential. These findings emphasize the need to investigate hidden diversity even in well-known species to allow for appropriate assessment of biological diversity and conservation measures.


Rutschmann S.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Gattolliat J.-L.,Musee cantonal de zoologie | Hughes S.J.,University of Trás os Montes e Alto Douro | Baez M.,University of La Laguna | And 3 more authors.
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2014

The Canary Islands and Madeira are reportedly home to seven recognised species of baetid mayflies (Ephemeroptera, Baetidae), two of which also occur on the European mainland. Their species status remains unsure, and loss of habitat suggests they are of conservation concern. We applied morphological characters and a general mixed Yule-coalescent (gmyc) model analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene to delineate putative species within morphologically cryptic species groups Baetis (Rhodobaetis) and Cloeon dipterum s.l. We used a three-gene mitochondrial data set (1450 base pairs) to infer phylogenetic relationships and a molecular clock calibrated using island geological ages to infer colonisation history. Genetic and morphological evidence indicated the presence of 12 putative species, 11 of which were endemic to the islands. Only Baetis atlanticus, on Madeira, also occurs on the European mainland. Two lineages (B. pseudorhodani s.l. and B. canariensis s.l.) appear to have arisen in the past 15 million years (mya) and diversified in parallel throughout the Canary Islands. Within the canariensis lineage, sister species occur on the island of Gran Canaria and in North Africa. Pronounced island endemism contradicts previous taxonomic work, which reported a depauperate fauna that included several mainland species. Recent diversification among islands and a close link to North Africa suggest a complex evolutionary history. Owing to their small population size and ongoing habitat alteration, several of these island endemics are among the most endangered aquatic insects in Europe. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Vilenica M.,University of Zagreb | Gattolliat J.-L.,Musee cantonal de zoologie | Ivkovic M.,University of Zagreb | Kucinic M.,University of Zagreb | And 4 more authors.
Natura Croatica | Year: 2014

The mayfly fauna of Plitvice Lakes NP was investigated at 14 sampling sites representing different types of karstic freshwater habitat (springs, streams, tufa barriers and lakes). Specimens were sampled from February 2007 to February 2009 using different methods and 19 taxa were identified. Lotic habitats supported more mayfly species than lentic habitat types. The recorded species, four of which are new for the Croatian fauna, encompass 27 % of the total number of Croatian mayfly fauna. This study represents an important contribution to the knowledge of mayfly fauna of karst habitats in Croatia. © 2014, Croatian Natural History Museum. All rights reserved.


Vuataz L.,Musee Cantonal de Zoologie | Vuataz L.,University of Lausanne | Rutschmann S.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries | Rutschmann S.,Berlin Center for Genomics in Biodiversity Research | And 5 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2016

Background: Larvae of the Holarctic mayfly genus Rhithrogena Eaton, 1881 (Ephemeroptera, Heptageniidae) are a diverse and abundant member of stream and river communities and are routinely used as bio-indicators of water quality. Rhithrogena is well diversified in the European Alps, with a number of locally endemic species, and several cryptic species have been recently detected. While several informal species groups are morphologically well defined, a lack of reliable characters for species identification considerably hampers their study. Their relationships, origin, timing of speciation and mechanisms promoting their diversification in the Alps are unknown. Results: Here we present a species-level phylogeny of Rhithrogena in Europe using two mitochondrial and three nuclear gene regions. To improve sampling in a genus with many cryptic species, individuals were selected for analysis according to a recent DNA-based taxonomy rather than traditional nomenclature. A coalescent-based species tree and a reconstruction based on a supermatrix approach supported five of the species groups as monophyletic. A molecular clock, mapped on the most resolved phylogeny and calibrated using published mitochondrial evolution rates for insects, suggested an origin of Alpine Rhithrogena in the Oligocene/Miocene boundary. A diversification analysis that included simulation of missing species indicated a constant speciation rate over time, rather than any pronounced periods of rapid speciation. Ancestral state reconstructions provided evidence for downstream diversification in at least two species groups. Conclusions: Our species-level analyses of five gene regions provide clearer definitions of species groups within European Rhithrogena. A constant speciation rate over time suggests that the paleoclimatic fluctuations, including the Pleistocene glaciations, did not significantly influence the tempo of diversification of Alpine species. A downstream diversification trend in the hybrida and alpestris species groups supports a previously proposed headwater origin hypothesis for aquatic insects. © 2016 The Author(s).


Vuataz L.,Musee cantonal de zoologie | Vuataz L.,University of Lausanne | Sartori M.,Musee cantonal de zoologie | Gattolliat J.-L.,Musee cantonal de zoologie | Monaghan M.T.,Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

The biodiversity and endemism of Madagascar are among the most extraordinary and endangered in the world. This includes the island's freshwater biodiversity, although detailed knowledge of the diversity, endemism, and biogeographic origin of freshwater invertebrates is lacking. The aquatic immature stages of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) are widely used as bio-indicators and form an important component of Malagasy freshwater biodiversity. Many species are thought to be microendemics, restricted to single river basins in forested areas, making them particularly sensitive to habitat reduction and degradation. The Heptageniidae are a globally diverse family of mayflies (>500 species) but remain practically unknown in Madagascar except for two species described in 1996. The standard approach to understanding their diversity, endemism, and origin would require extensive field sampling on several continents and years of taxonomic work followed by phylogenetic analysis. Here we circumvent this using museum collections and freshly collected individuals in a combined approach of DNA taxonomy and phylogeny. The coalescent-based GMYC analysis of DNA barcode data (mitochondrial COI) revealed 14 putative species on Madagascar, 70% of which were microendemics. A phylogenetic analysis that included African and Asian species and data from two mitochondrial and four nuclear loci indicated the Malagasy Heptageniidae are monophyletic and sister to African species. The genus Compsoneuria is shown to be paraphyletic and the genus Notonurus is reinstalled for African and Malagasy species previously placed in Compsoneuria. A molecular clock excluded a Gondwanan vicariance origin and instead favoured a more recent overseas colonization of Madagascar. The observed monophyly and high microendemism highlight their conservation importance and suggest the DNA-based approach can rapidly provide information on the diversity, endemism, and origin of freshwater biodiversity. Our results underline the important role that museum collections can play in molecular studies, especially in critically endangered biodiversity hotspots like Madagascar where entire species or populations may go extinct very quickly. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries and Musee cantonal de zoologie
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC evolutionary biology | Year: 2016

Larvae of the Holarctic mayfly genus Rhithrogena Eaton, 1881 (Ephemeroptera, Heptageniidae) are a diverse and abundant member of stream and river communities and are routinely used as bio-indicators of water quality. Rhithrogena is well diversified in the European Alps, with a number of locally endemic species, and several cryptic species have been recently detected. While several informal species groups are morphologically well defined, a lack of reliable characters for species identification considerably hampers their study. Their relationships, origin, timing of speciation and mechanisms promoting their diversification in the Alps are unknown.Here we present a species-level phylogeny of Rhithrogena in Europe using two mitochondrial and three nuclear gene regions. To improve sampling in a genus with many cryptic species, individuals were selected for analysis according to a recent DNA-based taxonomy rather than traditional nomenclature. A coalescent-based species tree and a reconstruction based on a supermatrix approach supported five of the species groups as monophyletic. A molecular clock, mapped on the most resolved phylogeny and calibrated using published mitochondrial evolution rates for insects, suggested an origin of Alpine Rhithrogena in the Oligocene/Miocene boundary. A diversification analysis that included simulation of missing species indicated a constant speciation rate over time, rather than any pronounced periods of rapid speciation. Ancestral state reconstructions provided evidence for downstream diversification in at least two species groups.Our species-level analyses of five gene regions provide clearer definitions of species groups within European Rhithrogena. A constant speciation rate over time suggests that the paleoclimatic fluctuations, including the Pleistocene glaciations, did not significantly influence the tempo of diversification of Alpine species. A downstream diversification trend in the hybrida and alpestris species groups supports a previously proposed headwater origin hypothesis for aquatic insects.


Barber-James H.M.,Albany Museum | Barber-James H.M.,Rhodes University | Gattolliat J.-L.,Musee cantonal de zoologie
Inland Waters | Year: 2012

Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) are a merolimnic insect order (part of the life cycle is aquatic) and play an important role as biological indicators of river ecosystem health. In the Afrotropical realm (including sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar), this order presently encompasses 122 genera and more than 400 species; all species and 85% of the genera are endemic to the Afrotropics. A great part of the diversity still remains unknown. The specific and generic diversity of mayfly families from Madagascar and from 4 sub-Saharan African subregions (West Africa, western Central Africa, eastern Central Africa, and southern Africa) is presented. A concurrent comparison of this diversity with the level of taxonomic knowledge for each subregion highlights inadequacy of knowledge. It is important for freshwater conservation biologists and ecologists, and for biomonitoring programs, to have a level of certainty when identifying taxa. This preliminary synthesis is intended to stimulate future taxonomic research and collecting efforts in understudied regions that will lead to species descriptions and recognition of the biodiversity of these regions. This information will feed into regional identification keys and enable more accurate species identification. Greater understanding of the diversity of organisms, the foundation for all ecological studies, can be used to refine biomonitoring protocols for freshwater organisms. © International Society of Limnology 2012.


PubMed | Musee cantonal de zoologie
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution | Year: 2013

The biodiversity and endemism of Madagascar are among the most extraordinary and endangered in the world. This includes the islands freshwater biodiversity, although detailed knowledge of the diversity, endemism, and biogeographic origin of freshwater invertebrates is lacking. The aquatic immature stages of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) are widely used as bio-indicators and form an important component of Malagasy freshwater biodiversity. Many species are thought to be microendemics, restricted to single river basins in forested areas, making them particularly sensitive to habitat reduction and degradation. The Heptageniidae are a globally diverse family of mayflies (>500 species) but remain practically unknown in Madagascar except for two species described in 1996. The standard approach to understanding their diversity, endemism, and origin would require extensive field sampling on several continents and years of taxonomic work followed by phylogenetic analysis. Here we circumvent this using museum collections and freshly collected individuals in a combined approach of DNA taxonomy and phylogeny. The coalescent-based GMYC analysis of DNA barcode data (mitochondrial COI) revealed 14 putative species on Madagascar, 70% of which were microendemics. A phylogenetic analysis that included African and Asian species and data from two mitochondrial and four nuclear loci indicated the Malagasy Heptageniidae are monophyletic and sister to African species. The genus Compsoneuria is shown to be paraphyletic and the genus Notonurus is reinstalled for African and Malagasy species previously placed in Compsoneuria. A molecular clock excluded a Gondwanan vicariance origin and instead favoured a more recent overseas colonization of Madagascar. The observed monophyly and high microendemism highlight their conservation importance and suggest the DNA-based approach can rapidly provide information on the diversity, endemism, and origin of freshwater biodiversity. Our results underline the important role that museum collections can play in molecular studies, especially in critically endangered biodiversity hotspots like Madagascar where entire species or populations may go extinct very quickly.

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