Muscle Biology Laboratory

Ann Arbor, MI, United States

Muscle Biology Laboratory

Ann Arbor, MI, United States

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Sharma N.,Muscle Biology Laboratory | Arias E.B.,Muscle Biology Laboratory | Cartee G.D.,Muscle Biology Laboratory | Cartee G.D.,University of Michigan
Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences | Year: 2012

Calorie restriction (CR) induces enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in fast-twitch (type II) muscle from old rats, but the effect of CR on slow-twitch (type I) muscle from old rats is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and phosphorylation of key insulin signaling proteins in isolated epitrochlearis (fast-twitch) and soleus (slow-twitch) muscles from 24-month-old ad libitum fed and CR (consuming 65% of ad libitum, intake) rats. Muscles were incubated with and without 1.2 nM insulin. CR versus ad libitum rats had greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation (pAkt) on T308 and S473 for both muscles incubated with insulin. GLUT4 protein abundance and phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (Y1162/1163) and AS160 (T642) were unaltered by CR in both muscles. These results implicate enhanced pAkt as a potential mechanism for the CR-induced increase in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by the fast-twitch epitrochlearis and slow-twitch soleus of old rats. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved.


Schweitzer G.G.,Muscle Biology Laboratory | Arias E.B.,Muscle Biology Laboratory | Cartee G.D.,Muscle Biology Laboratory | Cartee G.D.,University of Michigan
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2012

Prior exercise by rats can induce a sustained increase in muscle Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) phosphorylation on Thr642 (pAS160 Thr642). Because phosphorylation of AS160 on both AS160 Thr642 and AS160Ser588 is important for insulin-stimulated glucose transport (GT), we determined if exercise would also induce a sustained increase in pAS160Ser588 concomitant with persistently elevated pAS160Thr642 and GT. Given that the mechanisms for sustained postexercise (PEX) effects on pAS160 were uncertain, we also studied the four kinases known to phosphorylate AS160 (Akt, AMPK, RSK, and SGK1). In addition, because the serine/threonine phosphatase(s) that dephosphorylate muscle AS160 were previously unidentified, we assessed the ability of four serine/threonine phosphatases (PP1, PP2A, PP2B, and PP2C) to dephosphorylate AS160. We also evaluated exercise effects on posttranslational modifications (Tyr307 and Leu309) that regulate PP2A. In isolated epitrochlearis muscles from rats, GT at 3hPEX with insulin significantly (P < 0.05) exceeded SED controls. Muscles from 0hPEX vs. 0hSED and 3hPEX vs. 3hSED rats had greater pAS160Thr642 and pAS160Ser588. AMPK was the only kinase with greater phosphorylation at 0hPEX vs. 0hSED, and none had greater phosphorylation at 3hPEX vs. 3hSED. Each phosphatase was able to dephosphorylate pAS160Thr642 and pAS160Ser588 in cell-free assays. Exercise did not alter posttranslational modifications of PP2A. Our results revealed: 1) pAMPK as a potential trigger for increased pAS160Thr642 and pAS160Ser588 at 0hPEX; 2) PP1, PP2A, PP2B, and PP2C were each able to dephosphorylate AS160; and 3) sustained PEX-induced elevations of pAS160Thr642 and pAS160Ser588 were attributable to mechanisms other than persistent phosphorylation of known AS160 kinases or altered posttranslational modifications of PP2A. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.


PubMed | Muscle Biology Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) | Year: 2012

Prior exercise by rats can induce a sustained increase in muscle Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) phosphorylation on Thr(642) (pAS160(Thr642)). Because phosphorylation of AS160 on both AS160(Thr642) and AS160(Ser588) is important for insulin-stimulated glucose transport (GT), we determined if exercise would also induce a sustained increase in pAS160(Ser588) concomitant with persistently elevated pAS160(Thr642) and GT. Given that the mechanisms for sustained postexercise (PEX) effects on pAS160 were uncertain, we also studied the four kinases known to phosphorylate AS160 (Akt, AMPK, RSK, and SGK1). In addition, because the serine/threonine phosphatase(s) that dephosphorylate muscle AS160 were previously unidentified, we assessed the ability of four serine/threonine phosphatases (PP1, PP2A, PP2B, and PP2C) to dephosphorylate AS160. We also evaluated exercise effects on posttranslational modifications (Tyr(307) and Leu(309)) that regulate PP2A. In isolated epitrochlearis muscles from rats, GT at 3hPEX with insulin significantly (P < 0.05) exceeded SED controls. Muscles from 0hPEX vs. 0hSED and 3hPEX vs. 3hSED rats had greater pAS160(Thr642) and pAS160(Ser588). AMPK was the only kinase with greater phosphorylation at 0hPEX vs. 0hSED, and none had greater phosphorylation at 3hPEX vs. 3hSED. Each phosphatase was able to dephosphorylate pAS160(Thr642) and pAS160(Ser588) in cell-free assays. Exercise did not alter posttranslational modifications of PP2A. Our results revealed: 1) pAMPK as a potential trigger for increased pAS160(Thr642) and pAS160(Ser588) at 0hPEX; 2) PP1, PP2A, PP2B, and PP2C were each able to dephosphorylate AS160; and 3) sustained PEX-induced elevations of pAS160(Thr642) and pAS160(Ser588) were attributable to mechanisms other than persistent phosphorylation of known AS160 kinases or altered posttranslational modifications of PP2A.

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