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Narsale A.A.,Integrative Muscle Biology Laboratory | Carson J.A.,Integrative Muscle Biology Laboratory | Carson J.A.,University of South Carolina
Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care | Year: 2014

Purpose of review Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has emerged as a cytokine involved in cachexia progression with some cancers. This review will present the recent breakthroughs in animal models and humans related to targeting IL-6 as a cancer cachexia therapy. Recent findings IL-6 can target adipose, skeletal muscle, gut, and liver tissue, which can all affect cachectic patient recovery. IL-6 trans-signaling through the soluble IL-6R has the potential to amplify IL-6 signaling in the cachectic patient. In the skeletal muscle, chronic IL-6 exposure induces proteasome and autophagy protein degradation pathways that lead to wasting. IL-6 is also indirectly associated with AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) activation. Several mouse cancer models have clearly demonstrated that blocking IL-6 and associated signaling can attenuate cachexia progression. Additionally, pharmaceuticals targeting IL-6 and associated signaling can relieve some cachectic symptoms in cancer patients. Research with cachectic mice has demonstrated that exercise and nutraceutical administration can interact with chronic IL-6 signaling during cachexia progression. Summary IL-6 remains a promising therapeutic strategy for attenuating cachexia progression with many types of cancer. However, improvement of this treatment will require a better understanding of the indirect and direct effects of IL-6 as well as its tissue-specific actions in the cancer patient. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


White J.P.,Integrative Muscle Biology Laboratory | Puppa M.J.,Integrative Muscle Biology Laboratory | Sato S.,Integrative Muscle Biology Laboratory | Gao S.,Integrative Muscle Biology Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
Skeletal Muscle | Year: 2012

Background: Muscle protein turnover regulation during cancer cachexia is being rapidly defined, and skeletal muscle mitochondria function appears coupled to processes regulating muscle wasting. Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and the expression of proteins regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics are disrupted in severely cachectic ApcMin/+ mice. It has not been determined if these changes occur at the onset of cachexia and are necessary for the progression of muscle wasting. Exercise and anti-cytokine therapies have proven effective in preventing cachexia development in tumor bearing mice, while their effect on mitochondrial content, biogenesis and dynamics is not well understood. The purposes of this study were to 1) determine IL-6 regulation on mitochondrial remodeling/dysfunction during the progression of cancer cachexia and 2) to determine if exercise training can attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction and the induction of proteolytic pathways during IL-6 induced cancer cachexia.Methods: ApcMin/+ mice were examined during the progression of cachexia, after systemic interleukin (IL)-6r antibody treatment, or after IL-6 over-expression with or without exercise. Direct effects of IL-6 on mitochondrial remodeling were examined in cultured C2C12 myoblasts.Results: Mitochondrial content was not reduced during the initial development of cachexia, while muscle PGC-1α and fusion (Mfn1, Mfn2) protein expression was repressed. With progressive weight loss mitochondrial content decreased, PGC-1α and fusion proteins were further suppressed, and fission protein (FIS1) was induced. IL-6 receptor antibody administration after the onset of cachexia improved mitochondrial content, PGC-1α, Mfn1/Mfn2 and FIS1 protein expression. IL-6 over-expression in pre-cachectic mice accelerated body weight loss and muscle wasting, without reducing mitochondrial content, while PGC-1α and Mfn1/Mfn2 protein expression was suppressed and FIS1 protein expression induced. Exercise normalized these IL-6 induced effects. C2C12 myotubes administered IL-6 had increased FIS1 protein expression, increased oxidative stress, and reduced PGC-1α gene expression without altered mitochondrial protein expression.Conclusions: Altered expression of proteins regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and fusion are early events in the initiation of cachexia regulated by IL-6, which precede the loss of muscle mitochondrial content. Furthermore, IL-6 induced mitochondrial remodeling and proteolysis can be rescued with moderate exercise training even in the presence of high circulating IL-6 levels. © 2012 White et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Baltgalvis K.A.,Integrative Muscle Biology Laboratory | Baltgalvis K.A.,University of South Carolina | Berger F.G.,University of South Carolina | Pena M.M.O.,University of South Carolina | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2010

Criteria for diagnosing cachexia in adults include unintentional loss in body weight, decreased strength, fatigue, anorexia, and low muscle mass.Cachexia is also associated with systemic inflammation, altered metabolism,and anemia. The ApcMin/+ mouse is a model of cachexia directly related to intestinal tumor burden and subsequent chronic inflammation. These mice also demonstrate muscle weakness, fatigue, decreased volitional activity, and elevated circulating IL-6 levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the time course of changes in physical activity and their relationship to anemia, muscle apoptosis, and muscle mass and body mass loss during cachexia. A subset of male ApcMin/+ mice were given access to voluntary activity wheels from 5 to 26 wk of age, while sedentary male ApcMin/+ mice were housed in cages lacking wheels. At the study's end mice were stratified by cachectic symptoms. Severely cachectic mice haddecreased wheel running performance at 15 wk of age, while anemia and body weight loss were not present until 18 wk of age. Severely cachectic mice had lower hemoglobin levels compared with mildly cachectic mice at 13, 18, and 22 wk of age. Severely cachectic mice also demonstrated threefold more BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) protein in the gastrocnemius muscle at 26 wk of age compared with mildly cachectic mice. In sedentary ApcMin/+ mice at 26 wk of age anemia was present, and markers of apoptosis were induced in severely cachectic muscle. Proapoptotic protein expression was induced in both red and white portions of gastrocnemius muscle as well as in soleus muscle of severely cachectic mice compared with mildly cachectic mice. These data demonstrate that decrements in wheel running performance precede loss of body mass and that inherent muscle oxidative capacity is not protective against muscle apoptosis. © 2010 the American Physiological Society. Source

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