Ames, IA, United States
Ames, IA, United States

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Pittman J.S.,Murphy Brown LLC | Shepherd G.,Oklahoma State University | Thacker B.J.,Schering | Myers G.H.,Myers Parasitology Services
Journal of Swine Health and Production | Year: 2010

Intestinal parasites of swine are still present under conditions of modern swine management and can have a significant impact on growth rate and feed efficiency. Diagnosis of intestinal parasites can be accomplished by demonstrating adult parasites in feces or at necropsy, and by demonstrating eggs in feces. This article details a protocol for sampling fecal material to diagnose intestinal parasites in swine populations.


Pittman J.S.,Murphy Brown LLC | Shepherd G.,Oklahoma State University | Thacker B.J.,Schering | Myers G.H.,Myers Parasitology Services
Journal of Swine Health and Production | Year: 2010

Trichuris suis, the swine whipworm, can cause severe diarrhea, anorexia, and performance losses owing to reduced average daily gains and decreased feed efficiency. Severity of disease and impact on performance are related to infectious dose or concurrent infections. Trichuris suis is present in modern swine operations, but is an uncommon and perhaps neglected diagnosis. This paper describes an incidental finding of Tsuis in a finishing facility, with negligible impact on production, but demonstrates the continued presence of the parasite in modern swine production. This paper also provides a current review of T suis, trichuriasis, and control strategies.


Duff J.W.,North Carolina State University | Pittman J.S.,Murphy Brown LLC | Hammer J.M.,Novartis Animal Health U.S. Inc. | Kinyon J.M.,Iowa State University
Journal of Swine Health and Production | Year: 2014

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B hyo) in breeding animals, lactating sows, and their suckling offspring in swine dysentery- (SD-) positive herds. Materials and methods: Study 1: lactating sows and suckling piglets. Rectal swabs were collected eight times at 1- to 4-week intervals from an SD-positive breed-to-wean farm. At each sampling, rectal swabs were collected from 60 "sets" of animals (individual swabs from a sow and three suckling piglets). Piglet samples were tested as a litter. Samples were tested by Brachyspira species culture and confirmed by culture-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Study 2: breeding herds. Five SD-positive sow farms, varying in size, were selected for evaluation of breeding-herd prevalence of B hyo. Rectal swabs were collected once per farm from 150 randomly selected sows. Samples were tested by Brachyspira species culture and confirmed by culture-based PCR. Results: Study 1: lactating sows and suckling piglets. The percentage of sows on a farm that were positive for B hyo ranged from 0% to 5%, with an overall prevalence of 1.04%. The percentage of litters culture-positive and PCR-positive for B hyo ranged from 0% to 5%, with an overall prevalence of 1.88%. Study 2: breeding herds. The percentage of sows positive for B hyo ranged from 0% to 1.33%. Only three of the five farms tested positive. Implications: Sampling breeding herds and suckling-age piglets could serve as a valuable alternative to traditional surveillance schemes. Understanding the prevalence of SD on endemically infected sow farms could enhance current surveillance programs.


Pittman J.S.,Murphy Brown LLC | Myers G.H.,Myers Parasitology Services | Stalder K.J.,Iowa State University | Karriker L.A.,Iowa State University
Journal of Swine Health and Production | Year: 2015

Objectives: To determine reduction of Ascaris suum egg shedding and ovicidal effects in naturally infected commercial female breeding swine treated with fenbendazole. Materials and methods: Five shedding and three embryonation experiments across three commercial sow farms were conducted. Ascaris suum-infected sows were allocated to four treatments: untreated controls; 545.5 mg fenbendazole, 1 day (Treatment 1); 545.5 mg fenbendazole, 3 consecutive days (1636.5 mg total) (Treatment 2); and 1636.5 mg fenbendazole, 1 day (Treatment 3). Fecal samples were collected and evaluated by a standard flotation method (shedding study) or eggs were isolated and incubated (embryonation study) to determine embryonation rates. Groups were compared for time-to-negative (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis); percent negative (chi-square analysis); environmental burden (analysis of variance); and embryonation rates (analysis of variance). Results: Time-to-negative ranges were 9.3-13.1, 8.9-13.1, and 9.8 days post treatment (DPT) for treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively; control ranges were 13.4-28.2 DPT. Treatment sows were 90%-100% negative, compared to 0.0%-28.6% of controls. Environmental burden ranges were 7.0%-60.9%, 13.9%-60.8%, and 29.3% (treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively) and 60.4%-219.0% for controls. All treatment values differed from controls (P <.05), but not from each other. Embryonation rates were lower for treatments than controls at 6 and 8 DPT (P <.001). Implications: Fenbendazole at various dosages is effective against A suum infections in sows. Treatment should begin 14 days prior to movement into clean farrowing facilities. Under the conditions of this study, fenbendazole demonstrates ovicidal activity against A suum at 4-8 DPT.


Ramirez A.,Iowa State University | Wang C.,Iowa State University | Prickett J.R.,Iowa State University | Pogranichniy R.,Purdue University | And 9 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2012

Currently virus surveillance in swine herds is constrained by the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of sampling methods. The objective of this study was to assess the value of using oral fluids collected by barn personnel as a method of surveillance based on PCR testing. Approximately 12,150 pigs in 10 wean-to-finish barns on 10 farms were monitored for the presence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), influenza A virus (IAV), and Torque teno virus genogroups 1 (TTV1) and 2 (TTV2) by sampling oral fluid specimens. Oral fluid samples were collected from 6 pens at each site starting at the time of pig placement (∼3 weeks of age) and continuing thereafter at 2-week intervals for a period of 18 weeks. Data were analyzed both on a pen basis and barn basis. Overall, 508 (85%) samples were positive for PCV2, 73 (12%) for PRRSV, 46 (8%) for IAV, 483 (81%) for TTV2, and 155 (26%) for TTV1 during the study period. The estimated arithmetic means of the quantitative PCR-positive oral fluids for PCV2, PRRSV, and IAV were 1×10 4.62, 1×10 4.97, and 1×10 5.49per ml. With a single exception, all barns were positive for PCV2 and TTV2 at every sampling point in the study. Virus detection varied among barns, particularly for IAV and PRRSV. The pen level, cumulative distribution of agent combinations between all 10 barns were statistically different. The most commonly observed patterns were PCV2+TTV2 (239 pen samples, 40%), PCV2+TTV1+TTV2 (88 pen samples, 15%), and PCV2 alone (66 pen samples, 11%). This " proof-of-concept" project showed that a variety of viruses could be detected either intermittently or continuously in pig populations and demonstrated that barn herd virus status is highly variable, even among barns in the same production system. Oral fluid sampling is a promising approach for increasing the efficiency and cost effectiveness of virus surveillance in swine herds. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Weaver A.C.,North Carolina State University | Todd See M.,North Carolina State University | Hansen J.A.,North Carolina State University | Hansen J.A.,Murphy Brown LLC | And 4 more authors.
Toxins | Year: 2013

Three feed additives were tested to improve the growth and health of pigs chronically challenged with aflatoxin (AF) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Gilts (n = 225, 8.8 ± 0.4 kg) were allotted to five treatments: CON (uncontaminated control); MT (contaminated with 150 μg/kg AF and 1100 μg/kg DON); A (MT + a clay additive); B (MT + a clay and dried yeast additive); and C (MT + a clay and yeast culture additive). Average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) were recorded for 42 days, blood collected for immune analysis and tissue samples to measure damage. Feeding mycotoxins tended to decrease ADG and altered the immune system through a tendency to increase monocytes and immunoglobulins. Mycotoxins caused tissue damage in the form of liver bile ductule hyperplasia and karyomegaly. The additives in diets A and B reduced mycotoxin effects on the immune system and the liver and showed some ability to improve growth. The diet C additive played a role in reducing liver damage. Collectively, we conclude that AF and DON can be harmful to the growth and health of pigs consuming mycotoxins chronically. The selected feed additives improved pig health and may play a role in pig growth. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Chaytor A.C.,North Carolina State University | Hansen J.A.,North Carolina State University | Hansen J.A.,Murphy Brown LLC | Van Heugten E.,North Carolina State University | And 2 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2011

Contamination of agricultural crops by mycotoxins results in significant economic losses for grain producers and, when consumed, it can cause reduced growth and health in a wide range of animal species. Hundreds of mycotoxin producing molds exist, however each has a different frequency and pattern of occurrence, as well as differences in the severity of the diseases (mycotoxicoses) they cause. Among the mycotoxins considered to be major contaminates are aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin, ochratoxin, and zearalenone. Although a multitude of species can be harmed by consumption of these mycotoxins, swine appear to be the most commonly affected commodity species. The swine industry can thus experience great losses due to the presence of mycotoxin contamination in feeds. Subsequently, recognition and prevention of mycotoxicoses is extremely important and dependent on adequate grain sampling and analysis methods pre-harvest, as well as effective strategies post-harvest to reduce consumption by animals. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the major mycotoxin contaminants in grains, to describe methods of analysis and prevention to reduce mycotoxicoses in swine and other animals, and finally to discuss how mycotoxins directly affect swine production.


Chaytor A.C.,North Carolina State University | See M.T.,North Carolina State University | Hansen J.A.,Murphy Brown LLC | de Souza A.L.P.,Murphy Brown LLC | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011

This study investigated the growth and immune responses of pigs fed diets containing reduced concentrations of aflatoxin (AF) and deoxynivalenol (DON) from naturally contaminated corn. Sixty gilts (13.9 ± 0.2 kg of BW) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment and 3 pigs per pen): A (a control diet without detectable AF and DON); B (a diet with 60 μg of AF/kg and 300 μg of DON/kg); C (a diet with 120 μg of AF/kg and 600 μg of DON/kg); and D (a diet with 180 μg of AF/kg and 900 μg of DON/kg). Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water for 33 d. Feed intake and BW were measured weekly and pigs were bled (8 mL) on d 33 to measure the numbers of blood cells, to conduct liver function tests, and to measure immunological variables including IgG, IgM, interferon γ, IL4, IL6, and tumor necrosis factor α. One pig representing the average BW of each pen was killed to obtain the liver, kidneys, and spleen for weight, tissue color measurement, and histological evaluation of tissue damage. When compared with A, pigs in C and D tended to have reduced ADG (0.52 vs. 0.43 and 0.41 kg/d, respectively; P = 0.058) and ADFI (1.04 vs. 0.92 and 0.88 kg/d, respectively; P = 0.061). White blood cell count of pigs in D (23.4 × 103 cells/μL) was greater (P < 0.05) than those in A, B, and C (18.4, 18.5, and 16.8 × 103 cells/μL, respectively. Serum tumor necrosis factor α concentration of pigs in D (335 pg/mL) differed (P < 0.05) from those in A and C (299 and 290 pg/mL, respectively). Pigs in B and D had greater (P < 0.05) fibrosis in liver tissues than those in A. Collectively, this study shows that diets containing both AF and DON greater than 60 and 300 μg/kg, respectively, may reduce growth and decrease feed intake, whereas diets containing 120 μg of AF/kg and 600 μg of DON/kg may result in altered immune health, systemic inflammation, and partial liver damage, causing further reduction in growth of pigs. ©2011 American Society of Animal Science.


Shen Y.B.,North Carolina State University | Coffey M.T.,North Carolina State University | Coffey M.T.,Murphy Brown LLC | Kim S.W.,North Carolina State University
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of short term dietary supplementation of l-Trp and reducing large neutral amino acid (LNAA; valine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine) on growth and stress response in nursery and growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 674 crossbred pigs in 40 pens at 9-week of age were randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments with supplementation of 0.0% and 0.8% l-Trp to a corn and soybean meal basal diet. Experimental period was composed of 5 days in a nursery and 7 days in a finisher. After 12 days feeding of experimental diets, pigs were provided a common diet for an additional 7 days. In Exp. 2, 108 crossbred barrows at 6-week of age were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments: (1) a corn soybean meal basal diet (4.5% LNAA) supplemented with 0.0% l-Trp; (2) a corn soybean meal basal diet (4.5% LNAA) supplemented with 0.8% l-Trp; (3) a reduced LNAA (3.8%) diet supplemented with 0.7% l-Trp, which had the same Trp:LNAA ratio as treatment 2. The experimental period lasted 16 days. In Exp. 1, during the entire period, pigs fed the diet supplemented with 0.8% l-Trp had increased ADG and gain:feed (. P<. 0.05 and P<. 0.01, respectively) compared with pigs fed the diet without l-Trp supplementation. On day 6, one day after mixing, pigs fed the diet supplemented with 0.8% l-Trp had a lower (. P<. 0.05) concentration of salivary cortisol compared with pigs fed the diet without l-Trp supplementation. In Exp. 2, during the entire period, pigs fed the diet supplemented with 0.8% l-Trp or a reduced LNAA diet supplemented with 0.7% l-Trp had increased gain:feed (. P<. 0.01) compared with pigs fed the diet without l-Trp supplementation. Weight gain and gain:feed were similar (. P>. 0.05) between pigs fed the diet supplemented with 0.8% l-Trp and pigs fed a reduced LNAA diet supplemented with 0.7% l-Trp. In conclusion, short term supplementation of 0.8% l-Trp improved growth performance of pigs during period of social-mixing and was associated with reduced stress hormone concentrations. Dietary supplementation of 0.8% l-Trp had similar effects on feed efficiency as a reduced LNAA diet supplemented with 0.7% l-Trp, suggesting lowering LNAA is a valid method of reducing levels of l-Trp supplementation required for mitigating stress response. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Pittman J.S.,Murphy Brown LLC
Journal of Swine Health and Production | Year: 2010

Escherichia coli is a common cause of postweaning diarrhea in swine, but usually does not affect grower-finisher pigs. Eleven-week-old grower pigs presented with an acute and severe watery diarrhea, initially considered to be transmissible gastroenteritis. Diagnostic submissions showed the causative agent to be an F18-positive E coli producing shiga-like toxin. No pigs developed neurological signs or other conditions usually associated with edema disease. Affected pigs responded to treatment with neomycin. No significant difference was observed in mortality or growth performance between clinically affected and unaffected groups. This case report describes an unusual presentation of F18-positive E coli infection in 11-weekold pigs.

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