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Murdoch University is a public university based in Perth, Western Australia with campuses also in Singapore and Dubai. It began operations as the state's second university in 1973, and accepted its first students in 1975. Its name is taken from Sir Walter Murdoch , the Founding Professor of English and former Chancellor of the University of Western Australia. Wikipedia.


The fundamental role of policymakers when considering Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), or 'smart meters for energy and water infrastructure is to investigate a broad range of complex interrelated issues. These include alternative technical and non-technical options and deployment needs, the cost and benefits of the infrastructure (risks and mitigation measures), and the impact of a number of stakeholders: consumers, distributors, retailers, competitive market operators, competing technology companies, etc. The scale and number of potential variables in the AMI space is an almost unprecedented challenge to policymakers, with the anticipation of new ancillary products and services, associated market contestability, related regulatory and policy amendments, and the adequacy of consumer protection, education, and safety considerations requiring utmost due-diligence. Embarking on AMI investment entails significant technical, implementation, and strategic risk for governments and administering bodies, and an active effort is required to ensure AMI governance and planning maximises the potential benefits, and minimise uncertainties, costs, and risks to stakeholders. This work seeks to clarify AMI fundamentals and discusses the technical and related governance considerations from a dispassionate perspective, yet acknowledges many stakeholders tend to dichotomise debate, and obfuscate both advantages and benefits, and the converse. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Roossinck M.J.,Pennsylvania State University | Roossinck M.J.,Murdoch University
Annual Review of Genetics | Year: 2012

Viral metagenomics is the study of viruses in environmental samples, using next generation sequencing that produces very large data sets. For plant viruses, these studies are still relatively new, but are already indicating that our current knowledge grossly underestimates the diversity of these viruses. Some plant virus studies are using thousands of individual plants so that each sequence can be traced back to its precise host. These studies should allow for deeper ecological and evolutionary analyses. The finding of so many new plant viruses that do not cause any obvious symptoms in wild plant hosts certainly changes our perception of viruses and how they interact with their hosts. The major difficulty in these (as in all) metagenomic studies continues to be the need for better bioinformatics tools to decipher the large data sets. The implications of this new information on plant viruses for international agriculture remain to be addressed. © 2012 by Annual Reviews.


Two new empirical correlations based on proximate and ultimate analyses of biomass used for prediction of higher heating value (HHV) are presented in this paper. The correlations have been developed via stepwise linear regression method by using data of biomass samples (from the open literature) of varied origin and obtained from different geographical locations. The correlations have been validated via incorporation of additional biomass data. The correlation based on ultimate analysis (HHV = 0.2949C+0.8250H) has a mean absolute error (MAE) lower than 5% and marginal mean bias error (MBE) at just 0.57% which indicate that it has good HHV predictive capability. The other correlation which is based on proximate analysis (HHV = 0.1905VM+0.2521FC) is a useful companion correlation with low absolute MBE (0.67%). The HHV prediction accuracies of 12 other correlations introduced by other researchers are also compared in this study. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Thompson R.C.A.,Murdoch University
International Journal for Parasitology | Year: 2013

This review examines parasite zoonoses and wildlife in the context of the One Health triad that encompasses humans, domestic animals, wildlife and the changing ecosystems in which they live. Human (anthropogenic) activities influence the flow of all parasite infections within the One Health triad and the nature and impact of resulting spillover events are examined. Examples of spillover from wildlife to humans and/or domestic animals, and vice versa, are discussed, as well as emerging issues, particularly the need for parasite surveillance of wildlife populations. Emphasis is given to Trypanosoma cruzi and related species in Australian wildlife, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Giardia, Baylisascaris, Toxoplasma and Leishmania. © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc.


There has been considerable interest in cultivation of green microalgae (Chlorophyta) as a source of lipid that can alternatively be converted to biodiesel. However, almost all mass cultures of algae are carbon-limited. Therefore, to reach a high biomass and oil productivities, the ideal selected microalgae will most likely need a source of inorganic carbon. Here, growth and lipid productivities of Tetraselmis suecica CS-187 and Chlorella sp were tested under various ranges of pH and different sources of inorganic carbon (untreated flue gas from coal-fired power plant, pure industrial CO2, pH-adjusted using HCl and sodium bicarbonate). Biomass and lipid productivities were highest at pH 7. 5 (320 ± 29. 9 mg biomass L-1 day-1and 92 ± 13. 1 mg lipid L-1 day-1) and pH 7 (407 ± 5. 5 mg biomass L-1 day-1 and 99 ± 17. 2 mg lipid L-1 day-1) for T. suecica CS-187 and Chlorella sp, respectively. In general, biomass and lipid productivities were pH 7. 5 & pH 7 & pH 8 & pH 6. 5 and pH 7 & pH 7. 5 = pH 8 & pH 6. 5 & pH 6 & pH 5. 5 for T. suecica CS-187 and Chlorella sp, respectively. The effect of various inorganic carbon on growth and productivities of T. suecica (regulated at pH = 7. 5) and Chlorella sp (regulated at pH = 7) grown in bag photobioreactors was also examined outdoor at the International Power Hazelwood, Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. The highest biomass and lipid productivities of T. suecica (51. 45 ± 2. 67 mg biomass L-1 day-1 and 14. 8 ± 2. 46 mg lipid L-1 day-1) and Chlorella sp (60. 00 ± 2. 4 mg biomass L-1 day-1 and 13. 70 ± 1. 35 mg lipid L-1 day-1) were achieved when grown using CO2 as inorganic carbon source. No significant differences were found between CO2 and flue gas biomass and lipid productivities. While grown using CO2 and flue gas, biomass productivities were 10, 13 and 18 %, and 7, 14 and 19 % higher than NaHCO3, HCl and unregulated pH for T. suecica and Chlorella sp, respectively. Addition of inorganic carbon increased specific growth rate and lipid content but reduced biomass yield and cell weight of T. suecica. Addition of inorganic carbon increased yield but did not change specific growth rate, cell weight or content of the cell weight of Chlorella sp. Both strains showed significantly higher maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) when grown under optimum pH. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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