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Jordan M.J.,Murcia Institute of Agri Food Research and Development IMIDA | Quilez M.,Murcia Institute of Agri Food Research and Development IMIDA | Luna M.C.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Bekhradi F.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | And 4 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2017

The main goal of the present study was to describe the volatile profile of three different basil genotypes (Genovese and Green and Purple Iranian), and the impact that water stress (75% and 50% field capacity) and storage time (up to 7 days) have under mild refrigerated conditions. The chromatographic profile pointed to three different chemotypes: linalool/eugenol, neral/geranial, and estragol, for Genovese, Green, and Purple genotypes, respectively. Water stress depleted the volatile profile of these three landraces, due to a reduction in the absolute concentrations of some of the components related to fresh aroma (linalool, nerol, geraniol and eugenol). The stability of the basil volatile profile during storage varied depending on the water stress that had been applied. Concentration reductions of close to 50% were quantified for most of the components identified in the Purple genotype. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Bekhradi F.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Bekhradi F.,University of Tehran | Luna M.C.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Delshad M.,University of Tehran | And 4 more authors.
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2014

Fresh basil (. Ocimum basilicum L.) has become increasingly popular in recent years because of its superior flavour and good visual quality compared with the dry product. Water resources need to be used efficiently because of the limited water resources for agricultural uses, particularly in arid areas. In this study, the postharvest quality of different genotypes of basil including the purple and green Iranian cultivars and the Genovese variety grown under mild and severe deficit irrigation (25 DI and 50 DI, respectively) compared with a control (100% of the field capacity, FC) were evaluated. As expected, the highest yield was obtained for the control irrigation water while both DI decreased the yield. The respiration rate of the Iranian cultivars was double that of the Genovese variety, increasing with deficit irrigation but only significantly in the Genovese variety. Deficit irrigation did not preserve the sensory quality characteristics such as darkening, dehydration and aroma during storage better than the control irrigation water. Chlorophyll fluorescence did not show significant differences between irrigation water treatments. Antioxidant capacity increased when deficit irrigation was increased. These results show that basil as a fresh herb can be cultivated with less water without decreasing the quality characteristics. Deficit irrigation improves sustainability because of the water scarcity in many Mediterranean areas. However, the combination of adequate amounts of irrigation water applied and suitable cultivars is considered essential. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Murcia Institute of Agri Food Research and Development IMIDA, University of Tehran and CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2015

This study describes the effect of water stress and storage time on the content of anthocyanins and other phenolics in different genotypes of fresh sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Purple and green Iranian cultivars and a Genovese variety were exposed to a control (100% of the field capacity, FC) and to water stress of mild and severe deficit irrigation treatments (25 and 50 DI corresponding to 75 and 50% FC, respectively). The individual characterization by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) and the MS fragmentation pathway of anthocyanins are described. A 50% increase in the anthocyanin content was observed in 50 DI after storage. Water stress markedly enhanced the content of phenolic acids after storage in the three genotypes. Water stress can be an efficient way to help the sustainability of water resources, enriching the content of phenolic compounds that may be beneficial to human health.


PubMed | Murcia Institute of Agri Food Research and Development IMIDA, University of Murcia and CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2016

The main goal of the present study was to describe the volatile profile of three different basil genotypes (Genovese and Green and Purple Iranian), and the impact that water stress (75% and 50% field capacity) and storage time (up to 7days) have under mild refrigerated conditions. The chromatographic profile pointed to three different chemotypes: linalool/eugenol, neral/geranial, and estragol, for Genovese, Green, and Purple genotypes, respectively. Water stress depleted the volatile profile of these three landraces, due to a reduction in the absolute concentrations of some of the components related to fresh aroma (linalool, nerol, geraniol and eugenol). The stability of the basil volatile profile during storage varied depending on the water stress that had been applied. Concentration reductions of close to 50% were quantified for most of the components identified in the Purple genotype.


Jordan M.J.,Murcia Institute of Agri Food Research and Development IMIDA | Lax V.,Murcia Institute of Agri Food Research and Development IMIDA | Rota M.C.,University of Zaragoza | Loran S.,University of Zaragoza | Sotomayor J.A.,Murcia Institute of Agri Food Research and Development IMIDA
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The importance of the diterpenic and rosmarinic acid content in the biological activities of rosemary extracts has been studied previously, but how the relationship between the concentration of these components affects their antioxidant and antibacterial activities has received little attention. Accordingly, from a total of 150 plants, 27 methanolic extracts were selected, for their similar diterpene contents but different ratios between carnosic acid and carnosol concentrations. In extracts with similar rosmarinic acid contents but differing proportions between carnosic acid and carnosol, the two diterpenes were seen to equally affect the in vitro antioxidant activity; however, and related with the antibacterial efficiency, this biological activity improved when carnosol was the major diterpene component. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Jordan M.J.,Murcia Institute of Agri Food Research and Development IMIDA | Lax V.,Murcia Institute of Agri Food Research and Development IMIDA | Rota M.C.,University of Zaragoza | Loran S.,University of Zaragoza | Sotomayor J.A.,Murcia Institute of Agri Food Research and Development IMIDA
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2013

The effect of the ecological traits of the different bioclimatic areas of the province of Murcia on the chemical variability and antioxidant and bacteriostatic activities of individual rosemary extracts was studied. The main findings confirmed that a high thermicity index, favors both the methanolic extracts yielded by these shrubs and their biological activities. However, differences in their polyphenolic composition should be attributed to the genetic heritage of these plants rather than to the bioclimatic conditions in which they grow. As regards the relationship between the chemical composition of these extracts and their biological activities, it was noted that a high phenolic acid content, especially of rosmarinic acid, may increase the antioxidant activity exhibited by extracts containing high levels of carnosic acid. The bacteriostatic activity was higher (p< 0.05) in those extracts in which carnosic acid was the major component quantified.


Jordan M.J.,Murcia Institute of Agri Food Research and Development IMIDA | Lax V.,Murcia Institute of Agri Food Research and Development IMIDA | Rota M.C.,University of Zaragoza | Loran S.,University of Zaragoza | Sotomayor J.A.,Murcia Institute of Agri Food Research and Development IMIDA
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Individual Rosmarinus offcinalis plants from two extremes of the growing areas of the province of Murcia (southeastern Spain) were collected at the full bloom and fruit maturation phenological stages. It is known that the quantitative chemical composition of plants and consequently their biological activities vary throughout the vegetative cycle. Nevertheless, it has not been clear until now, in which of the two vegetative stages mentioned above, rosemary plants should be harvested in order to obtain maximum benefits. The results obtained from both bioclimatic areas revealed that the essential oils and the polyphenolic extracts from plants harvested at the fruit maturation phase provide better antimicrobial and antioxidant activities than those collected at the full bloom stage. These improvements could be explained by higher concentrations of γ terpinene, α-terpinene, terpinolene and caryophyllene oxide determined in the essential oils and of rosmarinic acid, hesperidin, and carnosol in the polyphenolic extracts. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Jordan M.J.,Murcia Institute of Agri Food Research and Development IMIDA | Lax V.,Murcia Institute of Agri Food Research and Development IMIDA | Rota M.C.,University of Zaragoza | Loran S.,University of Zaragoza | Sotomayor J.A.,Murcia Institute of Agri Food Research and Development IMIDA
Food Control | Year: 2013

The essential oil yield, volatile profile and antimicrobial activity of individual Rosmarinus officinalis L. shrubs growing wild in the different bioclimatic areas of the province of Murcia (Spain) were studied. A low thermicity index favoured the production of essential oil; however, no differentiation related to a specific chemotype depended on the geographical origin.In individual plants, the effect of the order of abundance among the components that define the rosemary essential oil chemotype (eucalyptol, camphor, α-pinene), on the antimicrobial activity was also determined. All the chemotypes showed strong antibacterial activity against four food-borne pathogens.Determination of the diameter of inhibition in Salmonella typhimurium pointed to a positive contribution effect of eucalyptol and α-pinene. A high proportion of α-pinene increases the effectiveness of the oil against Staphylococcus aureus, while the presence of eucalyptol, as the most abundant compound, considerably decreases the efficiency of rosemary oil. In contrast, the efficacy of these oils against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli was not affected by this condition.As regards the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericide (MBC) concentrations, the strong activities exhibited by these essentials oils (<0.5 μL/mL) did not allow the chemotypes and antibacterial activities to be differentiated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Jordan M.J.,Murcia Institute of Agri Food Research and Development IMIDA | Castillo J.,Nutrafur SA | Castillo J.,University of Murcia | Banon S.,University of Murcia | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

The aim of the present work was to evaluate whether the relation between the concentrations of the two major diterpenes present in two typified rosemary extracts affects their levels of deposition and antioxidant capacity in different lamb tissues. The composition of the extracts expressed as percentage of weight/weight was 1:1 (14-16)% and 2:1 (25-11)% (carnosic acid-carnosol), respectively. Thirty weaned lambs were assigned randomly to three homogeneous groups. One group was fed a basal diet as a control and the diets of the other two were enriched with rosemary extracts 1:1 and 2:1, respectively. HPLC-ESI-MS/TOF identified a metabolite (C19H22O 3) described for the first time in lamb tissues, along with carnosol, carnosic acid, rosmanol and carnosol-p-quinone. The results obtained corroborate the importance of the presence of carnosol in the dietary administration of rosemary extract as a way of improving the stability of the diterpene fraction during feed manufacturing and the level of deposition and antioxidant efficacy of diterpenes after ruminal fermentation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Murcia Institute of Agri Food Research and Development IMIDA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2015

The present study examines the effect of an increased day temperature on vitamin C and carotenoid concentrations in tomato, depending on the developmental stage of fruits when the stress is imposed. Plants were cultivated in a growth chamber initially at 24 C, and the day temperature was increased to 32 C when fruits belonging to six different fruit development stages could be differentiated. Vitamin C, phytoene, phytofluene, lycopene, -carotene, and violaxantin concentrations were significantly lower when a temperature of 32 C was imposed during the advanced stages of fruit development compared to the levels observed in the control treatment. However, no effect or increased concentrations were observed when the temperature was increased in earlier stages, indicating the adaptation of the plant metabolism to high temperature. Finally, no effect on -carotene concentration was observed, regardless of the fruit developmental stage when the temperature increase was applied.

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