Matsukawa K.,National Defense Medical College |
Yato Y.,National Defense Medical College |
Kato T.,National Defense Medical College |
Imabayashi H.,National Defense Medical College |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine
Object. A cortical bone trajectory (CBT) is a new pedicle screw trajectory that maximizes the thread contact with cortical bone surface, providing enhanced screw purchase. Despite the increased use of the CBT in the lumbar spine, little is known about the insertion technique for the sacral CBT. The aim of this study was to introduce a novel sacral pedicle screw trajectory. This trajectory engages with denser bone maximally by the screw penetrating the S-1 superior endplate through a more medial entry point than the traditional technique, and also has safety advantages, with the protrusion of the screw tip into the intervertebral disc space carrying no risk of neurovascular injury. Methods. In this study, the CT scans of 50 adults were studied for morphometric measurement of the new trajectory. The entry point was supposed to be the junction of the center of the superior articular process of S-1 and approximately 3 mm inferior to the most inferior border of the inferior articular process of L-5. The direction was straight forward in the axial plane without convergence, angulated cranially in the sagittal plane penetrating the middle of the sacral endplate. The cephalad angle to the sacral endplate, length of trajectory, and safety of the trajectory were investigated. Next, the insertional torque of pedicle screws using this technique was measured intraoperatively in 19 patients and compared with the traditional technique. Results. The mean cephalad angle in these 50 patients was 30.7° ± 5.1°, and the mean length of trajectory was 31.5 ± 3.5 mm. The CT analysis revealed that the penetrating S-1 endplate technique did not cause any neurovascular injury anteriorly in any case. The new technique demonstrated an average of 141% higher insertional torque than the traditional monocortical technique. Conclusions. The penetrating S-1 endplate technique through the medial entry point is suitable for the connection of lumbar CBT, has revealed favorable stability for lumbosacral fixation, and has reduced the potential risk of neurovascular injuries. ©AANS, 2014. Source
Fukushi I.,Dental Support Co. |
Fukushi I.,Keio University |
Okada Y.,Murayama Medical Center |
Okada Y.,Keio University
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
The Müller maneuver has been widely applied to mimic the pathophysiological condition of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during wakefulness. We applied cine MRI to elucidate dynamics of the upper airway during the Müller maneuver in healthy subjects (n = 7). Three sets of images (during quiet nose breathing, quiet mouth breathing, and Müller maneuver) were recorded on sagittal midline plane together with impedance pneumography. The position of the tongue root changed during a respiratory cycle when subjects breathed quietly. At the early inspiratory phase the tongue root moved forward and upward, the retroglossal airway size increased toward the middle of inspiration, and the airway size became smaller again toward the end of inspiration. During expiration the airway size became further smaller. When the subject performed the Müller maneuver, the movement of the oropharynx and its narrowing were greater than those of the velopharynx. However, the airway was not completely obstructed. A relatively large morphological change was observed in the retropalatal and retroglossal regions with the backward and downward motion of the tongue root and flattening of the tongue shape during the Müller maneuver. Although patterns of upper airway narrowing and tongue shape alterations were variable among subjects, upper airway narrowing was commonly prominent in the retroglossal area. Cine MRI with the Müller maneuver enables to visualize the upper airway dynamics and could be easily applied to evaluate upper airway collapsibility during wakefulness. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source
Mizuno K.,Keio University |
Mizuno K.,Murayama Medical Center |
Tsuji T.,Keio University |
Takebayashi T.,Keio University |
And 3 more authors.
Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Background and objective. Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) can interfere with rehabilitation processes and lead to poor functional outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prism adaptation (PA) therapy improves USN and functional outcomes in stroke patients in the subacute stage. Methods. A multicenter, double-masked, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of a 2-week PA therapy on USN assessed with the Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT), the Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS), and activities of daily living (ADL) as evaluated with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). A total of 38 USN patients with right-brain damage were divided into prism (n = 20) and control (n = 18) groups. Patients were divided into mild and severe USN groups according to BIT behavioral test (mild 55 and severe<55). The prism group performed repetitive pointing with prism glasses that induce rightward optical shift twice daily, 5 days per week, for 2 weeks, whereas the control group performed similar pointing training with neutral glasses. Results. The FIM improved significantly more in the prism group. In mild USN patients, there was significantly greater improvement of BIT and FIM in the prism group. Conclusions. PA therapy can significantly improve ADL in patients with subacute stroke. © 2011 American Society of Neurorehabilitation. Source
Tsuji O.,Keio University |
Miura K.,Keio University |
Fujiyoshi K.,Keio University |
Fujiyoshi K.,Murayama Medical Center |
And 3 more authors.
Reports of functional recovery from spinal cord injury after the transplantation of rat fetus-derived neural stem cells and embryonic stem cells has raised great expectations for the successful clinical use of stem cell transplantation therapy. However, the ethical issues involved in destroying human embryos or fertilized oocytes to obtain stem cells have been a major obstacle to developing clinically useful stem cell sources, and the transplantation of stem cells isolated from other human embryonic tissues has not yet been developed for use in clinical applications. Recently, induced pluripotent stem cells, which can serve as a source of cells for autologous transplantation, have been attracting a great deal of attention as a clinically viable alternative to stem cells obtained directly from tissues. In this review, we outline the neural induction of mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, their therapeutic efficacy in spinal cord injury, and their safety in vivo. © 2011 The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc. Source
Nishimura S.,35 Shinanomachi |
Nishimura S.,Keio University |
Yasuda A.,35 Shinanomachi |
Iwai H.,35 Shinanomachi |
And 12 more authors.
Background: The transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) at the sub-acute phase of spinal cord injury, but not at the chronic phase, can promote functional recovery. However, the reasons for this difference and whether it involves the survival and/or fate of grafted cells under these two conditions remain unclear. To address this question, NS/PC transplantation was performed after contusive spinal cord injury in adult mice at the sub-acute and chronic phases. Results: Quantitative analyses using bio-imaging, which can noninvasively detect surviving grafted cells in living animals, revealed no significant difference in the survival rate of grafted cells between the sub-acute and chronic transplantation groups. Additionally, immunohistology revealed no significant difference in the differentiation phenotypes of grafted cells between the two groups. Microarray analysis revealed no significant differences in the expression of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines or growth factors, which affect the survival and/or fate of grafted cells, in the injured spinal cord between the sub-acute and chronic phases. By contrast, the distribution of chronically grafted NS/PCs was restricted compared to NS/PCs grafted at the sub-acute phase because a more prominent glial scar located around the lesion epicenter enclosed the grafted cells. Furthermore, microarray and histological analysis revealed that the infiltration of macrophages, especially M2 macrophages, which have anti-inflammatory role, was significantly higher at the sub-acute phase than the chronic phase. Ultimately, NS/PCs that were transplanted in the sub-acute phase, but not the chronic phase, promoted functional recovery compared with the vehicle control group. Conclusions: The extent of glial scar formation and the characteristics of inflammation is the most remarkable difference in the injured spinal cord microenvironment between the sub-acute and chronic phases. To achieve functional recovery by NS/PC transplantation in cases at the chronic phase, modification of the microenvironment of the injured spinal cord focusing on glial scar formation and inflammatory phenotype should be considered. © 2013 Nishimura et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source