Murayama Medical Center

Musashimurayama, Japan

Murayama Medical Center

Musashimurayama, Japan
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Fujiki Y.,Graduate University for Advanced Studies | Yokota S.,The University of Shimane | Okada Y.,Murayama Medical Center | Oku Y.,Hyogo College of Medicine | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Functional fluorescence imaging has been widely applied to analyze spatio-temporal patterns of cellular dynamics in the brain and spinal cord. However, it is difficult to integrate spatial information obtained from imaging data in specific regions of interest across multiple samples, due to large variability in the size, shape and internal structure of samples. To solve this problem, we attempted to standardize transversely sectioned spinal cord images focusing on the laminar structure in the gray matter. We employed three standardization methods, the affine transformation (AT), the angle-dependent transformation (ADT) and the combination of these two methods (AT+ADT). The ADT is a novel non-linear transformation method developed in this study to adjust an individual image onto the template image in the polar coordinate system. We next compared the accuracy of these three standardization methods. We evaluated two indices, i.e., the spatial distribution of pixels that are not categorized to any layer and the error ratio by the leave-one-out cross validation method. In this study, we used neuron-specific marker (NeuN)-stained histological images of transversely sectioned cervical spinal cord slices (21 images obtained from 4 rats) to create the standard atlas and also to serve for benchmark tests. We found that the AT+ADT outperformed other two methods, though the accuracy of each method varied depending on the layer. This novel image standardization technique would be applicable to optical recording such as voltage-sensitive dye imaging, and will enable statistical evaluations of neural activation across multiple samples. © 2013 Fujiki et al.

Ishikawa M.,International University of Health and Welfare | Ishikawa M.,Keio University | Cao K.,Keio University | Pang L.,Keio University | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Orthopaedic Science | Year: 2015

Methods: Twenty-four Lenke 1C and 2C AIS patients who underwent posterior thoracic fusion were included. The mean age of patients was 15.7 years old at time of surgery. Constructs used for surgery in all cases were pedicle screw constructs ending at L3 or above. Radiographic measurements were performed on Cobb angles of the main thoracic and TLL curves and coronal balance. Factors related to final Cobb angle of TLL curve and postoperative change of coronal balance were investigated.Results: Mean Cobb angles for main thoracic and TLL curves were 59.0° and 43.9° preoperatively, and were corrected to 21.5° and 22.0° at final follow-up, respectively. Mean coronal balance was −5.6 mm preoperatively and was corrected to −14.6 mm at final follow-up. Final Cobb angle of TLL curve was significantly correlated with immediate postoperative Cobb angle of main thoracic curve and tilt of lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV). Postoperative change of coronal balance was significantly correlated with selection of LIV relative to stable vertebra.Conclusion: Spontaneous correction of TLL curve occurred consistently by correcting the main thoracic curve and making the LIV more horizontal after posterior thoracic fusion for Lenke 1C and 2C AIS. The more distal fixation to stable vertebra resulted in coronal balance shifting more to the left postoperatively.Background: Controversy still exists around surgical strategies for Lenke type 1C and 2C curves with primary thoracic and compensatory lumbar curves in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The benefit of selective thoracic fusion (STF) for these curve types is spontaneous lumbar curve correction while saving more mobile lumbar segments. However, a risk of postoperative coronal decompensation after STF has also been reported. This multicenter retrospective study was conducted to evaluate postoperative behavior of thoracolumbar/lumbar (TLL) curve and coronal balance after posterior thoracic fusion for Lenke 1C and 2C AIS. © 2014, The Japanese Orthopaedic Association.

Okada Y.,Murayama Medical Center | Okada Y.,Keio University | Sasaki T.,University of Tokyo | Oku Y.,Hyogo College of Medicine | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2012

The neural inspiratory activity originates from a ventrolateral medullary region called the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC), yet the mechanism underlying respiratory rhythmogenesis is not completely understood. Recently, the role of not only neurons but astrocytes in the central respiratory control has attracted considerable attention. Here we report our discovery that an intracellular calcium rise in a subset of putative astrocytes precedes inspiratory neuronal firing in rhythmically active slices. Functional calcium imaging from hundreds of preBötC cells revealed that a subset of putative astrocytes exhibited rhythmic calcium elevations preceding inspiratory neuronal activity with a time lag of approximately 2 s. These preinspiratory putative astrocytes maintained their rhythmic activities even during the blockade of neuronal activity with tetrodotoxin, whereas the rhythm frequency was lowered and the intercellular phases of these rhythms were decoupled. In addition, optogenetic stimulation of preBötC putative astrocytes induced firing of inspiratory neurons. These findings raise the possibility that astrocytes in the preBötC are actively involved in respiratory rhythm generation in rhythmically active slices. © 2012 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2012 The Physiological Society.

Fukushi I.,Dental Support Co. | Fukushi I.,Keio University | Okada Y.,Murayama Medical Center | Okada Y.,Keio University
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2013

The Müller maneuver has been widely applied to mimic the pathophysiological condition of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during wakefulness. We applied cine MRI to elucidate dynamics of the upper airway during the Müller maneuver in healthy subjects (n = 7). Three sets of images (during quiet nose breathing, quiet mouth breathing, and Müller maneuver) were recorded on sagittal midline plane together with impedance pneumography. The position of the tongue root changed during a respiratory cycle when subjects breathed quietly. At the early inspiratory phase the tongue root moved forward and upward, the retroglossal airway size increased toward the middle of inspiration, and the airway size became smaller again toward the end of inspiration. During expiration the airway size became further smaller. When the subject performed the Müller maneuver, the movement of the oropharynx and its narrowing were greater than those of the velopharynx. However, the airway was not completely obstructed. A relatively large morphological change was observed in the retropalatal and retroglossal regions with the backward and downward motion of the tongue root and flattening of the tongue shape during the Müller maneuver. Although patterns of upper airway narrowing and tongue shape alterations were variable among subjects, upper airway narrowing was commonly prominent in the retroglossal area. Cine MRI with the Müller maneuver enables to visualize the upper airway dynamics and could be easily applied to evaluate upper airway collapsibility during wakefulness. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Matsumoto M.,Keio University | Okada E.,Keio University | Ichihara D.,Keio University | Watanabe K.,Keio University | And 9 more authors.
Spine | Year: 2010

Study Design. Prospective 10-year follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of patients who underwent anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) and healthy control subjects. Objective. To clarify the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration during 10 years after ACDF. Summary of Background Data. There have been few studies which investigated incidence of progression of degenerative changes at adjacent segments in patients treated by ACDF comparing with healthy subjects. Methods. Sixty-four patients who underwent ACDF (48 males, 16 females, mean age 47.3 years, mean follow-up 12.1 year) and 201 asymptomatic volunteers who underwent MRI in our previous study (113 males, 88 females, mean age; 41.1 year, mean follow-up; 11.7 years) were included in this study. The patients and control subjects underwent follow-up MRI in this study. Following MR findings were evaluated using a numerical grading system from C2-C3-C7-T1: (1) Decrease in signal intensity of disc (DSI), (2) Posterior disc protrusion (PDP), (3) Disc space narrowing, and (4) Foraminal stenosis. When an increase in at least one grade in any of the radiographic parameters was detected between the 2 time points, progression of disc degeneration was judged as present at the level of interest. Results. Progression of DSI was significantly more frequent in ACDF group than in control group at C4-C5, while progression of PDP was significantly more frequent in ACDF group than in control group at all levels except for C5-C6. Progression of disc space narrowing and foraminal stenosis was significantly more frequent in ACDF group at C3-C4 and at C6-C7, respectively. Conclusion. Although both ACDF patients and control subjects demonstrated progression of disc degeneration during 10 years, ACDF patients had significantly higher incidence of progression of disc degeneration at adjacent segments than control subjects, while progression of disc degeneration at adjacent segments was not always related to development of clinical symptoms. © 2009, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Matsumoto M.,Keio University | Okada E.,Keio University | Ichihara D.,Keio University | Watanabe K.,Keio University | And 9 more authors.
European Spine Journal | Year: 2012

Purpose To evaluate changes in the transverse area of deep posterior muscles of the cervical spine 10 years after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF), in comparison with healthy volunteers. Methods Thirty-one patients (22 males, 9 females, mean age at follow-up 59.3 years, mean follow-up 12.1 years) who had undergone preoperativeMRI and non-instrumented ACDF within levels C3-4 to C5-6 were enrolled. 32 asymptomatic volunteers (17 males, 15 females; mean age, 54.7 years; mean follow-up, 11.7 years) who underwent MRI between 1993 and 1996 served as controls. Follow-up MRI was performed on both patients and control subjects, and the cross-sectional areas of deep posterior muscles were measured digitally at levels C3-4, 4-5, and 5-6. Results The mean total cross-sectional area in the ACDF and control groups was 4,693.6 ± 1,140.9 and 4,825.8 ± 1,048.2 mm 2 in the first MR study (P = 0.63), and 4,616.7 ± 1,086.0 and 5,036.7 ± 1,105.6 mm 2 at followup (P = 0.13). The total cross-sectional area in the ACDF group slightly decreased, while that in the control group increased (-77.1 ± 889.7 vs. 210.9 ± 622.0 mm 2, P = 0.14). The mean change in the cross-sectional area had no significant correlation with clinical symptoms, including neck pain or JOA score. Conclusions ACDF patients did not show a marked decrease in the cross-sectional area of the deep posterior cervical muscles, but as compared with control subjects there was a slight decrease. A decrease in the cross-sectional area of these muscles after ACDF may not result in the axial symptoms as seen in patients treated by posterior surgery. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

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