Batavia, IL, United States
Batavia, IL, United States

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A method and electron linac system for production of radioisotopes is provided. The electron linac is an energy recovery linac (ERL) with an electron beam transmitted through a thin bremsstrahlung radiator. Isotopes are produced through bremsstrahlung photon interactions in an isotope production target that is spatially separated from the bremsstrahlung radiator. The electron beam does not pass through the isotope production target. The electron beam energy is recollected and reinjected into the linac accelerating structure. The reduction of material in the beam by removing the isotope production target and making the radiator thin is the essential aspect of the invention because large spreads in energy and transverse scattering angles caused by material in the beam preclude efficient energy recovery. The method described here can reduce the cost of energy to produce a quantity of radioisotope by more than a factor of 3 compared to a non-ERL bremsstrahlung method.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1000.00K | Year: 2012

The objective of lab-on-chip (LOC) is to integrate and perform multiple analytical processes on a microchip platform. So far, most LOC research has been focused on electrophoretic separations. Limited progress has been made on multi-process integration, due mainly to the lack of a robust and miniaturized pump that can deliver constant flow and be integrated with LOC devices. Microchip HPLC can and will play an important role in point-of- care measurements, remote sensing and chemical and biological warfare agent detections. Highly parallel configurtaions can enhance the sample throughput considerably with commensurate impact on drug screening and biomarker discovery. A major challenge toward microchip HPLC is the lack of a robust and miniature high-pressure pump that can be integrated with LOC devices. The goal of this project is to address this issue. Under the support of DOE STTR Phase I (DOE SC0006351), we have demonstrated the feasibility of an innovative pump. The pump works like a battery, and therefore we term it a Pressure Power Supply (PPS). A single PPS may only produce a moderate pressure, but a high pressure can be produced if a number of PPS are connected in series. In the STTR Phase I project, we have demonstrated that the pressure output is directly proportional to the number of PPS stacked. Theoretically, we can produce any (high) pressure as long as we connect adequate number of PPS in series. In practice, the upper pressure is limited by the accessories such as tubing connectors, unions, etc. In this Phase II project, we will develop a miniaturized microchip HPLC system (McHPLC) that integrates our serially-stacked EOP, an on-chip smaple injection scheme, and a porous layer open tubular (PLOT) column. We will then couple McHPLC with a mass spectrometer for proteomic analysis of Alzheimer & apos;s disease (AD) at its incipient stages. The McHPLC will have many other applications. Because of its compact size and light weight, it can be used in future Spacelab in the search for extraterrestrial life. It can be used for remote and battlefield Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent detection, since it can easily be carried by a person in a backpack. It can be highly parallelized to increase the throughput for drug compound screening. It can be used for bed-side clinical analysis.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015

Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) uses low efficiency klystrons in the CEBAF machine. In the older portion they operate at 30% efficiency with a tube mean time between failure (MTBF) of five to six years. A highly efficient replacement source (>55-60%) must provide a high degree of backwards compatibility, both in size and voltage requirements, to allow its use as a replacement for the klystron (model VKL7811) presently used at Thomas Jefferson Laboratory, while providing significant energy savings. GENERAL STATEMENT OF HOW THIS PROBLEM OR SITUATION IS BEING ADDRESSED. We will develop a highly reliable, highly efficient RF source based upon a novel injection- locked amplitude-modulated (AM) magnetron with a lower total cost of ownership, operating above 80% efficiency with an MTBF of six to seven years. The design of the RF source will be based upon a single injection-locked magnetron system at 8 kW capable of operating up to 13 kW, using the magnetrons magnetic field to achieve the AM which is required for backwards compatibility to compensate for microphonics and beam loads. WHAT WILL BE DONE IN PHASE I. The novel injection-locked 1497 MHz 8 kW AM magnetron will be designed during Phase I. The low-level RF system, required to maintain injection locking during the AM of the magnetron with the magnetic field controlled, will also be designed. A prototype magnetic assembly for the varying magnetic field will be built and tested to assure operation at the modulation frequencies of the microphonics. COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS AND OTHER BENEFITS Future applications of the novel injection-locked AM magnetron include, commercial magnetron heating applications for more precise material processing in the chemical industry such as microwave driven particle synthesis. Phased array radar systems will also benefit from the injection locked AM magnetron, whether in ground penetrating radar or microwave power transmission. And, of course, it has accelerator applications worldwide. KEY WORDS: magnetron, injection-locking, amplitude-modulation SUMMARY FOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS: A backward compatible highly efficient microwave source will be developed to replace the low efficiency, costly klystrons currently used at JLAB. The novel injection-locked AM magnetron has commercial applications in accelerator applications, microwave heating in the chemical industry and applications in phased array radar systems.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2016

Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) uses low efficiency klystrons in the CEBAF machine. In the older portion they operate at 30% efficiency with a tube mean time between failure (MTBF) of five to six years. A highly efficient source (>55-60%) must provide a high degree of backwards compatibility, both in size and voltage requirements, to replace the klystron presently used at JLab, while providing energy savings. GENERAL STATEMENT OF HOW THIS PROBLEM OR SITUATION IS BEING ADDRESSED. We will develop a highly reliable, highly efficient RF source based upon a novel injection-locked amplitude-modulated (AM) magnetron with a lower total cost of ownership, >80% efficiency, and MTBF of six to seven years. The design of the RF source will be based upon a single injection-locked magnetron system at 8 kW capable of operating up to 13 kW, using the magnetron magnetic field to achieve the AM required for backwards compatibility to compensate for microphonics and beam loads. WHAT WAS DONE IN PHASE I. A novel injection-locked 1497 MHz 8 kW AM magnetron with a trim magnetic coil was designed and its operation numerically simulated during Phase I. The low-level RF system to control the trim field and magnetron anode voltage was designed and modeled for operation at the modulation frequencies of the microphonics. A plan for constructing a prototype magnetron and control system was developed. WHAT IS PLANNED FOR THE PHASE II PROJECT Prototype 1497 magnetrons with a trim magnetic coil will be built. A system to control the magnetron will be built and tested to vary the trim coil current and the anode voltage as required to suppress beam emittance growth due to microphonics and changing beam loads. COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS AND OTHER BENEFITS The immediate outcome of this project is a high efficiency, low cost replacement for the CEBAF accelerator klystrons at JLab with an energy savings payback time of 5 years. Future applications of the novel injection-locked AM magnetron include, commercial magnetron heating applications for more precise material processing in the chemical industry such as microwave driven particle synthesis. Phased array radar systems will also benefit from the injection locked AM magnetron in ground penetrating radar and microwave power transmission.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1000.00K | Year: 2012

The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC), a novel technique for six-dimensional (6D) ionization cooling of muon beams, has shown considerable promise based on analytic and simulation studies. However, the implementation of this revolutionary method of muon cooling requires new techniques for the integration of high-power RF cavities into the low-temperature superconducting magnets of the HCC. veral SBIR-STTR-developed inventions will be combined in an innovative practical engineering solution for a muon-cooling channel suitable for a muon collider. The design will incorporate the HCC, a Helical Solenoid (HS) magnet, hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities, and emittance exchange using a continuous absorber and be optimized using G4beamline muon beam cooling simulations. The goal of the project is to optimize beam cooling for maximum collider luminosity while including all known engineering constraints, from material properties to affordable RF power sources and cryogenic loads, and to generate an engineering design of a segment of a channel as a prototype to build and test.Conceptual designs for the integration of 805 MHz RF cavities into a 10 T Nb3Sn based HS test section have been developed based on recent tests of a doped H2-pressurized RF cavity that operated in a charged particle beam. Calculations show that dielectric inserts can make the cavities smaller for a given frequency to ease physical constraints, where heat loads will be tolerable and RF breakdown of the inserts will be suppressed by the pressurized hydrogen gas.A complete engineering design of a 1m section of 10 T HCC with integrated 805 MHz RF will be made and optimized using beam cooling simulations. Key components of a 10T, 805 MHz HCC will be demonstrated, including the design, construction, and testing of a full-sized dielectric-loaded cavity and a four-coil 10T Nb3Sn Helical Solenoid.The muon-beam cooling-channel developed in this project will enable a muon collider, the next step toward the energy frontier, Higgs/neutrino/Z-factories, and rare muon decay experiments. Commercial uses of the beams made possible by the cooling techniques developed in this project include scanning for nuclear contraband, studies of material properties with spin resonance techniques, and muon catalyzed fusion.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015

Battery-powered compact, portable sources of gamma rays with energies between 1 MeV and 6 MeV and with variable duty cycles are needed for a variety of applications, from homeland security to a broad range of industrial and medical applications. Radioactive sources, although compact, are not tunable and are hazardous even when not being used. Typical industrial electron accelerators that provide gamma rays of the required energy are not compact or portable, nor can they operate on batteries. We propose a novel temperature-stabilized solid-state permanent-magnet microtron electron accelerator to provide a lightweight gamma-ray source with outstanding performance parameters and flexibility. The electrons are accelerated by a small RF cavity powered by a highly-efficient magnetron power source. Compactness and portability are achieved by using a magnet that does not need coils, power, or cooling, and using an efficient accelerating system that minimizes the need for RF power and cooling. The classical microtron design that we propose has a built-in vacuum chamber that eliminates a reliability issue seen in betatron gamma ray sources. A prototype portable microtron will be produced in Phase II. In Phase I, computations and simulations will be done to demonstrate accelerator performance and to verify that all requirements can be met. In addition, a complete conceptual design of a prototype unit will be produced, including the electrical, electronic, mechanical, and magnetic components. The design will utilize commercially available components from the US. Commercial applications of compact gamma ray sources include detection of fissile materials, observation of flaws in industrial components, discovery of flaws and weaknesses in bridges and other construction structures, medical scanning, oil exploration and others.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2015

The development of high-performance H- ion sources is an effective method for improving the next generation of high power proton accelerators. The SNS at ORNL needs improved H- source performance to meet upgraded SNS requirements. The PIP-II Proton driver at Fermilab needs a CW H Ion Source to satisfy demanding performance specifications: 10 mA CW beam current with normalized transverse rms emittance 0.2 mm mrad, fast chopping capability, fast intensity variation, and high availability. Many other new accelerator projects need CW and pulsed H- beams with performance exceeding those achieved today. Currently, there is no H- source that satisfies such demands. In this project we propose to develop novel modifications of H- source designs which will satisfy these requirements. The new source is an advanced high duty factor (up to CW) version of a saddle antenna (SA) RF Surface Plasma Source (SPS) with improved efficiency, up to 15 mA average current, improved electrode cooling using new materials, new cesiation procedures for reduced cesium loss, longer lifetime by suppressing electrode sputtering, immunity to electrode shorting, and push button operation. The design of the advanced SPS with SA RF discharge was developed including optimized H- emitter, cesiation, beam extraction, formation, and transport. A prototype of the CW SA RF SPS has been developed and tested for validation of the feasibility to produce the necessary parameters. Relative to previous RF sources, the specific efficiency of positive ion generation was improved to 200 mA/cm2 kW (a factor of 40) and the specific efficiency of negative ion generation was improved to 20 mA/cm2 kW (a factor of8). An advanced version of the SA SPS H-source with an improved discharge cell developed in Phase I will be developed for highest intensity with the goal of having high availability and improved beam parameters: average H- beam current of 15 mA, 103 hours lifetime, integrated beam lifetime 10 A-hours. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The primary application of the new source to be developed in this project is for high intensity proton drivers that might be used for Spallation Neutron Sources and energy and intensity frontier discovery machines. The source is also an upgrade path for many existing and planned applications for medical treatments (including hundreds of cyclotrons with external injection for isotope production), cancer therapy, high-current tandem accelerators for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, and homeland defense to produce resonant gamma ray techniques to detect explosives and Special Nuclear Materials.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2014

The development of H- ion sources with highest performance is essential for the success of the next generation of high power proton accelerators. Project X at Fermilab needs a CW H- Ion Source that satisfies demanding performance specifications: 10 mA CW beam current with normalized transverse rms emittance 0.2 mm-mr, fast chopping capability, fast intensity variation, and high availability. Many other new accelerator projects need CW and pulsed H- beams with performance exceeding those achieved today. Currently, no H- source satisfies these demands. In this project, we will develop novel modifications of H- source designs to satisfy these requirements based on a CW version of a Saddle Antenna (SA) RF Surface Plasma Source (SPS) that was developed for pulsed ORNL SNS operation. The unique plasma distribution generated by the saddle antenna allows more than 15 mA CW current with low power and corresponding longer lifetime. In addition, the new design will have improved electrode cooling using new materials, a new cesiation procedure with reduced cesium loss, and even longer lifetime through suppression of electrode sputtering and immunity to electrode shorting. The design will also be modified to be a long-life CW high-intensity proton source. The design of the advanced SPS with SA RF discharge will be developed including optimization of the H- emitter, cesiation, beam extraction, formation and transport. A prototype CW SA SPS will be developed and tested to validate the feasibility of producing the required parameters. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The applications of the new source to be developed in this project include proton drivers to be used for neutrino factories, muon colliders, spallation neutron sources, and accelerator-driven subcritical reactors. The source is an upgrade path for many other existing and planned applications such as medical treatments (including hundreds of cyclotrons with external injection for isotope production and high current tandem accelerators for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy), and homeland defense using resonant gamma ray techniques to detect explosives and special nuclear materials.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 999.94K | Year: 2013

S-Band vacuum loads at the SLAC linac are encountering operational problems now that they have to operate under the stringent requirements of the LCLS: 50 MW peak power, 6 kW average power, and extremely tight phase stability for the linac. Failure mechanisms have been studied which suggest an RF surface breakdown of the 200 m Kanthal layer. We propose a novel solution which incorporates mode conversion from TE10 in rectangular waveguide to TE01 in round waveguide. Lossy material will be placed in the round waveguide, and the selection of the TE01 mode minimizes the electric field normal to the surface of the lossy material. This lossy material in the TE01 round waveguide will be mechanically confined in compression (without brazing), in order to eliminate operationally induced tensile stresses in the lossy material. The wrap-around mode converter will be based upon the X-band mode converter invented at SLAC, and the TE01 waveguide load design will be based upon HOM load designs developed by Muons, Inc. In Phase I, a novel lossy ceramic material and a mechanical system for incorporating it into an S-band dry load were designed and tested. The dry load operates in the TE01 mode and incorporates mode converters designed by SLAC. The lossy ceramic components are cast into cylinders and other novel shapes from slurries composed of mixtures of SiC and porcelain and processed to full densification and vitrification. The microwave characteristics of the lossy ceramic cylinders were measured to determine the optimum mixture for various elements of the load. During Phase II, the manufacturing of components with the lossy ceramic material will be studied to find the optimum design for low-cost manufacturing of the complete load. This will include manufacturing processes for the mode converter, minimized post machining of the lossy ceramic material, compression techniques for various sections of the load, optimum configurations of the components to even out the heat load, high power testing and life tests. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: This dry load system will have a wide range of application from beam line HOM loads to TE01 dry loads. Every SRF accelerator will benefit from the use of this material. The ability to cast the material into novel shapes allows for low cost solutions which would otherwise be prohibitive due to machining costs of more traditional lossy ceramics.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2012

YBCO coated conductors are one of the primary options for generating the high magnetic fields needed for future high energy physics devices. Due to slow quench propagation, quench detection remains one of the primary limitations to YBCO magnets. Fiber optic sensing, based upon Rayleigh scattering, has the potential for spatial resolution approaching the wavelength of light, or very fast temporal resolution at low spatial resolution, and a continuum of combinations in between. This work will optimize Rayleigh scattering such that it provides the appropriate combination of spatial and temporal resolution for quench detection in YBCO magnets.The research institution has recently developed an experimentally validated 3D quench propagation code that will accurately define the acceptable range of spatial and temporal resolutions for effective quench detection in YBCO magnets. This code will evaluate present-day and potentially improved YBCO conductors. The data volume and speed requirements for quench detection via Rayleigh scattering require the development of a high performance trigger/data acquisition system, including algorithm and platform performance benchmarking.The safe operating range of spatial and temporal resolutions were defined for present-day YBCO conductors. Initial development and benchmarking of a high performance trigger and data acquisition system that will be required for quench detection via Raleigh scattering were successfully achieved. Phase II will provide detailed understanding about quench detection system design via the aforementioned simulation tools. The software development and technology studies from Phase I will be used to build a high performance trigger system that will be used to demonstrate Rayleigh scattering based quench detection technology.The behaviors quantified during this work will have great benefit in high energy physics applications, high field nuclear magnetic resonance, as well as a spectrum of grid applications, including energy storage, generators for wind turbines, and fault current limiters. The quench sensors developed here are essential for the reliable, safe operation of YBCO based systems.

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