Munroe Meyer Institute

Nebraska City, NE, United States

Munroe Meyer Institute

Nebraska City, NE, United States
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Heinrichs-Graham E.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Kurz M.J.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Kurz M.J.,Munroe Meyer Institute | Gehringer J.E.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
Brain Structure and Function | Year: 2017

Shortly after movement termination, there is a strong increase or resynchronization of the beta rhythm (15–30 Hz) across the sensorimotor network of humans, known as the post-movement beta rebound (PMBR). This response has been associated with active inhibition of the motor network following the completion of a movement, sensory afferentation of the sensorimotor cortices, and other functions. However, studies that have directly probed the role of the PMBR in movement execution have reported mixed results, possibly due to differences in the amount of total motor output and/or movement complexity. Herein, we used magnetoencephalography during an isometric-force control task to examine whether alterations in the timing of motor termination demands modulate the PMBR, independent of differences in the motor output itself. Briefly, we manipulated the amount of time between the cue to initiate the force and the cue to terminate the force, such that participants were either forced to terminate quickly or slowly. We also performed a control experiment to test for temporal predictability effects. Our results indicated that the PMBR was stronger immediately following movement termination in the prefrontal cortices, supplementary motor area, left postcentral gyrus, paracentral lobule, and parietal cortex when participants were forced to terminate more quickly. These results were not attributable to the temporal predictability of each condition. These findings support the notion that the PMBR response at least partially serves motor inhibition, independent of the parameters within the motor output itself, and that particular nodes of the motor network may be differentially modulated by motor termination. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Brawner A.T.,Munroe Meyer Institute | Xu R.,Munroe Meyer Institute | Xu R.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Liu D.,Munroe Meyer Institute | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2017

Understanding human brain development and disease is largely hampered by the relative inaccessibility of human brain tissues. Recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have led to the generation of unlimited human neural cells and thereby facilitate the investigation of human brain development and pathology. Compared with traditional 2-dimensional (2D) culture methods, culturing the hiPSC-derived neural cells in a three-dimensional (3D) free-floating manner generates human central nervous system (CNS) organoids. These 3D CNS organoids possess the unique advantage of recapitulating multi-regional or region-specific cytoarchitecture seen in the early human fetal brain development. The CNS organoids are becoming a strong complement to the animal model in studying brain development and pathology, and developing new therapies to treat neurodevelopmental diseases. Further improvements to the long-term maintenance and neural maturation of the organoids may allow them to model neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we will summarize the current development of hiPSCs to generate CNS organoids for modeling neurological disorders and future perspective. © 2017, E-Century Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved.

Yunusova Y.,University of Toronto | Yunusova Y.,Sunnybrook Health Science Center | Green J.R.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Green J.R.,Munroe Meyer Institute | And 4 more authors.
Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica | Year: 2012

Objective: The relations between acoustic measures and their articulatory bases have rarely been tested in dysarthria but are important for diagnostic and treatment purposes. We tested the association between acoustic measures of F2 range and F2 slope with kinematic measures of tongue movement displacement and speed in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and healthy controls speaking at normal and slow rates. Relations between acoustic and kinematic measures and speech intelligibility were examined. Results: As healthy controls reduced their speaking rate, their F2 slopes and movement speeds decreased. In talkers with ALS, acoustic and kinematic variables were associated with changes in speaking rate, characteristic of disease progression. Participants with slow rate had shallower F2 slopes and slower movement speeds than those with normal rate. Relations between F2 range and tongue displacement were weaker. F2 slope, displacement, and duration were correlated with speech intelligibility most consistently. Conclusion: Findings suggested that F2 slope is a useful marker for tracking disease progression in ALS. F2 slope reflects changes in tongue function with disease progression and is linked to speech intelligibility. Changes in movement speed, however, might be the earliest sign of disease in the tongue. © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Allen K.D.,Munroe Meyer Institute | Wallace D.P.,Childrens Mercy Hospital | Greene D.J.,Munroe Meyer Institute | Bowen S.L.,Prevention Group | Burke R.V.,Prevention Group
Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities | Year: 2010

The authors examined the benefits of video modeling to teach a unique vocational skill set to an adolescent and two young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Video modeling was used to teach skills necessary to entertain customers and promote products in a retail setting while wearing a WalkAround' costume. The three participants were observed before and after watching a video model perform the skills in the costume in scripted and naturalistic scenes. Data can be interpreted to conclude that all participants learned to use the skills in combination or sequence after watching the video model. The skills generalized to an actual job opportunity. The participants reported they enjoyed the work, and comments from supervisors were positive. Implications are discussed. © 2010 Hammill Institute on Disabilities.

Lomas J.E.,Marcus Institute | Fisher W.W.,Munroe Meyer Institute | Kelley M.E.,Munroe Meyer Institute
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis | Year: 2010

Prior research indicates that reinforcement of an appropriate response (e.g., compliance) can produce concomitant reductions in problem behavior reinforced by escape when problem behavior continues to produce negative reinforcement (e.g., Lalli et al., 1999). These effects may be due to a preference for positive over negative reinforcement or to positive reinforcement acting as an abolishing operation, rendering demands less aversive and escape from demands less effective as negative reinforcement. In the current investigation, we delivered a preferred food item and praise on a variable-time 15-s schedule while providing escape for problem behavior on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule in a demand condition for 3 participants with problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. Results for all 3 participants showed that variable-time delivery of preferred edible items reduced problem behavior even though escape continued to be available for these responses. These findings are discussed in the context of motivating operations.

Perry A.M.,University of Manitoba | Nelson M.,Munroe Meyer Institute | Sanger W.G.,Munroe Meyer Institute | Bridge J.A.,Munroe Meyer Institute | And 2 more authors.
In Vivo | Year: 2013

Background: The identification of chromosomal abnormalities in many hematopoietic and mesenchymal neoplasms has contributed significantly to classification systems. Follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma is an intermediate-grade malignancy with morphological and immunophenotypic features of follicular dendritic cells. Available data on genetic changes in this neoplasm are limited, with only isolated case reports of cytogenetic abnormalities. Case Report: We reviewed histological, immunophenotypic and cytogenetic findings in two cases of FDC sarcoma. The two cases of FDC sarcoma, were observed in female patients, one was nodal and one extranodal and they exhibited relatively complex karyotypes, characterized by structural abnormalities and loss of multiple chromosomes. One patient had several disease recurrences. At the last follow-up both patients were alive with no residual disease. Conclusion: The cytogenetic findings in these two cases, coupled with the few previously described abnormal karyotypes, suggest that FDC sarcoma is cytogenetically diverse.

Meadows T.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Meadows T.,Munroe Meyer Institute | Valleley R.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Thorson R.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Evans J.,University of Nebraska Medical Center
Clinical Pediatrics | Year: 2011

Objective: To examine pediatricians time spent, and resulting reimbursement payments for, addressing behavioral health concerns in a rural primary care pediatric practice. Methods: Research assistants observed 228 patient visits in a rural pediatric primary care office. The length of the visit (in minutes), content of visit, number and type of codes billed, and related insurance reimbursement amounts were recorded. Interrater reliability, scored for 22% of patient visits, was ≥90%. Results: Medical only visits lasted, on average, 8 minutes as compared with behavioral only visits that required nearly 20 minutes of physician time. Pediatricians billed up to 10 different billing codes for medical only visits but only billed 1 code for behavioral only visits. Consequently, pediatricians were reimbursed significantly less, per minute, for behavioral only visits as compared with those sessions addressing medical only or a combination of medical and behavior concerns. Conclusion: Findings converge with previous research, demonstrating that behavioral health concerns dramatically affect the length of visit for primary care physicians. Moreover, this study is the first to document the specific impact of such concerns on pediatrician reimbursement for providing behavioral services. These results provide further support for integrating behavioral health services into pediatric primary care settings, thus allowing physicians to refer more difficult patients with behavioral issues to in-house collaborating behavioral health providers who can spend additional time necessary to address the behavioral health issue and who are licensed to receive mental health reimbursement. © The Author(s) 2011.

Zhao Z.,Munroe Meyer Institute | Verma V.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Zhang M.,University of Nebraska Medical Center
Cancer Biology and Therapy | Year: 2015

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is correlated with oncogenesis in different types of cancers, such as anaplastic large cell lymphoma, lung cancer, neuroblastoma, and even breast cancer, by abnormal fusion of ALK or non-fusion ALK activation. ALK is a receptor tyrosine kinase, with a single transmembrane domain, that plays an important role in development. Upon ligand binding to the extracellular domain, the receptor undergoes dimerization and subsequent autophosphorylation of the intracellular kinase domain. In recent years, ALK inhibitors have been developed for cancer treatment. These inhibitors target ALK activity and show effectiveness in ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer. However, acquired treatment resistance makes the future of this therapy unclear; new strategies are underway to overcome the limitations of current ALK inhibitors. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

PubMed | Munroe Meyer Institute and University of Nebraska Medical Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: JCI insight | Year: 2016

The creation of a humanized chimeric mouse nervous system permits the study of human neural development and disease pathogenesis using human cells in vivo. Humanized glial chimeric mice with the brain and spinal cord being colonized by human glial cells have been successfully generated. However, generation of humanized chimeric mouse brains repopulated by human neurons to possess a high degree of chimerism have not been well studied. Here we created humanized neuronal chimeric mouse brains by neonatally engrafting the distinct and highly neurogenic human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived rosette-type primitive neural progenitors. These neural progenitors predominantly differentiate to neurons, which disperse widely throughout the mouse brain with infiltration of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus at 6 and 13 months after transplantation. Building upon the hiPSC technology, we propose that this potentially unique humanized neuronal chimeric mouse model will provide profound opportunities to define the structure, function, and plasticity of neural networks containing human neurons derived from a broad variety of neurological disorders.

PubMed | Munroe Meyer Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Occupational therapy in health care | Year: 2013

Stroke is one of the most disabling conditions affecting adults today. Much research has been performed on rehabilitation interventions targeting hemiparesis after stroke. Constraint-induced therapy is a treatment technique that focuses on restraining the unaffected upper extremity while forcing use of the affected extremity to promote purposeful movement. This study presents a meta-analysis of applicable current literature on this treatment approach. It is concluded that constraint-induced therapy may be an effective treatment option for hemiparesis experienced after stroke.

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