Municipality of Thessaloniki

Thessaloníki, Greece

Municipality of Thessaloniki

Thessaloníki, Greece
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Samara C.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Voutsa D.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Kouras A.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Eleftheriadis K.,National Center for Radiation Research And Technology | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations, associated to PM10 and PM2.5 particle fractions, were concurrently determined during the warm and the cold months of the year (July-September 2011 and February-April 2012, respectively) at two urban sites in the city of Thessaloniki, northern Greece, an urban-traffic site (UT) and an urban-background site (UB). Concentrations at the UT site (11.3 ± 5.0 and 8.44 ± 4.08 14 μg m-3 for OC10 and OC2.5 vs. 6.56 ± 2.14 and 5.29 ± 1.54 μg m-3 for EC10 and EC2.5) were among the highest values reported for urban sites in European cities. Significantly lower concentrations were found at the UB site for both carbonaceous species, particularly for EC (6.62 ± 4.59 and 5.72 ± 4.36 μg m-3 for OC10 and OC2.5 vs. 0.93 ± 0.61 and 0.69 ± 0.39 μg m-3 for EC10 and EC2.5). Despite that, a negative UT-UB increment was frequently evidenced for OC2.5 and PM2.5 in the cold months possibly indicative of emissions from residential wood burning at the urban-background site. At both sites, cconcentrations of OC fractions were significantly higher in the cold months; on the contrary, EC fractions at the UT site were prominent in the warm season suggesting some influence from maritime emissions in the nearby harbor area. Secondary organic carbon, being estimated using the EC tracer method and seasonally minimum OC/EC ratios, was found to be an appreciable component of particle mass particularly in the cold season. The calculated secondary contributions to OC ranged between 35 and 59 % in the PM10 fraction, with relatively higher values in the PM2.5 fraction (39-61 %). The source origin of carbonaceous species was investigated by means of air parcel back trajectories, satellite fire maps, and concentration roses. A local origin was mainly concluded for OC and EC with limited possibility for long range transport of biomass (agricultural waste) burning aerosol. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Samoli E.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Rodopoulou S.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Ostro B.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Ostro B.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | And 11 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2013

Background: Few studies have investigated the independent health effects of different size fractions of particulate matter (PM) in multiple locations, especially in Europe. Objectives: We estimated the short-term effects of PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ ; 10; μm (PM10), ≤ 2.5; μm (PM2.5), and between 2.5 and 10; μm (PM2.5-10) on all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality in 10 European Mediterranean metropolitan areas within the MED-PARTICLES project. Methods: We analyzed data from each city using Poisson regression models, and combined city-specific estimates to derive overall effect estimates. We evaluated the sensitivity of our estimates to co-pollutant exposures and city-specific model choice, and investigated effect modification by age, sex, and season. We applied distributed lag and threshold models to investigate temporal patterns of associations. Results: A 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.55% (95% CI: 0.27, 0.84%) increase in all-cause mortality (0-1 day cumulative lag), and a 1.91% increase (95% CI: 0.71, 3.12%) in respiratory mortality (0-5 day lag). In general, associations were stronger for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality than all-cause mortality, during warm versus cold months, and among those ≥ 75 versus < 75 years of age. Associations with PM2.5-10 were positive but not statistically significant in most analyses, whereas associations with PM10 seemed to be driven by PM2.5. Conclusions: We found evidence of adverse effects of PM2.5 on mortality outcomes in the European Mediterranean region. Associations with PM2.5-10 were positive but smaller in magnitude. Associations were stronger for respiratory mortality when cumulative exposures were lagged over 0-5 days, and were modified by season and age.


Paschalidou A.K.,Democritus University of Thrace | Kassomenos P.A.,University of Ioannina | Kelessis A.,Municipality of Thessaloniki
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015

Metro-railways are considered to be a sustainable means of public transportation, as they contribute substantially to the reduction of air pollutant emissions through the decrease in the number of cars and heavy vehicles circulating in the road network. However, the works related to their construction may pose an extra burden in air quality status and consequently in public health. In the present study, we studied the possible effects of the metro-railway construction works in Thessaloniki, Greece, on public health through 2 well-established air quality indices, namely the PI and DAQI. The analysis suggested that there were excess high levels of PM10 measured in the close vicinity of the construction-sites during the period studied (2008-2014). These concentrations are likely to have originated from local construction sources rather than transport or continental secondary dust sources and might have an adverse health impact, as according to the PI index, the majority of days in the construction sites were grouped as "low pollution" or "moderate pollution", while a small percentage of days (1.84%) were suggested to be unhealthy for the most vulnerable groups of the population. Similarly, the DAQI index revealed that the vast majority of days were grouped as "poor" air quality, while 5.50% of the days reflected the most oppressive conditions for public health, as they were characterized as "very poor" air quality. Given the need of reaching a compromise between future transportation sustainability and public health during the construction works, the feasibility of appropriate measures in the area should be examined. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Siakavaras D.,University of Aegean | Samara C.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Petrakakis M.,Municipality of Thessaloniki | Biskos G.,The Cyprus Institute | Biskos G.,Technical University of Delft
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2016

Number size distributions of atmospheric aerosol particles were simultaneously measured at a kerbside and an urban background site in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece, from June to October 2009. New particle formation events were observed ca. 27% of the days at the urban kerbside site and 29% of the days at the urban background site. In almost all the cases the events started between 10:00 and 12:00, and continued for several hours. The total number concentration (TNC) of the particles having diameters from 10 to ca. 500 nm during the events increased from 1.4 × 104 to 6.5 × 104 #/cm3 at the urban kerbside site, and from 0.2 × 104 to 2.4 × 104 #/cm3 at the urban background site. At the urban kerbside site, 9% of the days exhibited class I events (i.e., events followed by a clear growth of the newly formed particles), 10% class II (i.e., events during which the concentration of nucleation mode particles were high but their growth was not continuous), 67% were characterised as non-event days, and 14% of the days exhibited no clear particle formation pattern (undefined). At the urban background site, 15% of the days were classified as class I, 5% as class II, 75% of the days showed no nucleation, whereas only 5% of the days were undefined. While the fraction of event days (both class I and class II) at both sites was similar (ca. 20%), the higher fraction of class I events observed at Eptapyrgio can be attributed to the cleaner environment of the urban background site that allows better identification of the particle concentration increase. The nucleation bursts show a similar pattern at both sites, with the newly formed particles reaching a final size of ca. 80-100 nm. A distinct difference between the two stations was that the smallest particles observed during the new-particle formation events had a diameter of ca. 10 nm (i.e., the smallest particles we could observe) at the kerbside site and ca. 20 nm at the urban background site. This is an indication that the new particles observed at the urban background station are formed elsewhere and are transported to the site. Estimated concentrations of H2SO4 using a proxy model, suggest that these are high enough to explain the nucleation events despite that the available aerosol surface was high, especially at the urban kerbside site. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Vlachokostas C.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Chourdakis E.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Michalidou A.V.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Moussiopoulos N.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2012

Health can be impacted in many ways by exposure to chemical stressors in urban areas. Epidemiological research community has established consistent associations between traffic related air pollution and various health outcomes. Nevertheless, many urban environments, due to practical reasons (bulk of equipment) and mainly due to economical constraints, are characterised by the absence of the necessary monitoring infrastructure, for pollutants such as toluene. This chemical stressor is associated with numerous risks to human health, mainly with acute and chronic effects on the central nervous system. Due to the lack of monitoring data, it may be convenient to identify and establish a set of possible empirical relationships between health stressors in order to assess air quality trends of traffic related pollution in an urban area and support decision making. The use of environmental statistics can be meaningful towards this direction. This paper aims at developing and presenting a tractable approach, in order to reliably forecast toluene levels in EU urban environments. Multiple stepwise regression analysis is used for this purpose and a strong statistical relationship is detected mainly between toluene, benzene and CO. The adopted regression models are validated in order to depict their applicability and representativeness. In addition the models are applied to Thessaloniki, Greece, which is considered one of the most polluted cities within Europe. A comparison between available measurements, predictions based on the developed statistical models and air quality modelling output, provides discussion for transferability issues of such statistical relations between cities, but also interesting insights for the specific city. In general the presented results demonstrate that the adopted approach is capable of capturing toluene concentration trends and should be considered as complementary to air quality monitoring. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Markakis K.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Poupkou A.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Melas D.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Tzoumaka P.,Municipality of Thessaloniki | Petrakakis M.,Municipality of Thessaloniki
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2010

This paper describes a computational system developed for the compilation of an anthropogenic emission inventory of gaseous pollutants for Greece. The inventory was developed using a geographical information system integrated with SQL programming language to provide high temporal gridded emission fields for CO, NO2, NO, SO2, NH3 and 23 non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) species for the reference year 2003. Activity and statistical data from national sources were used for the quantification of emissions from the road transport, the other mobile sources and machinery sectors and from range activities using top-down or bottom-up methodologies. Annual emission data from existing national and European emission databases were also used. The emission data were spatially and temporally disaggregated using source-specific spatiotemporal indicators. On national scale, the road transport sector produces about 60% of the annual CO and NMVOC total emissions, with gasoline vehicles being the main CO and NMVOC emissions source. The road transport is responsible for approximately half of the higher alkanes and for more than half of the ethene and toluene emissions. The maritime sector accounts for about 40% of the annual total NOx emissions, most of which are emitted by the international shipping subsector, whilst SO2 is emitted mainly by the energy sector. The evaluation of the emissions inventory suggests that it provides a good representation of the amounts of gaseous pollutants emitted on national scale and a good characterisation of the relative composition of CO and NOx emission in the large urban centres. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Voutsa D.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Samara C.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Manoli E.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Lazarou D.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Tzoumaka P.,Municipality of Thessaloniki
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

This study investigates the water-soluble ionic constituents (Na+, K+, NH4 +, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, NO3 -, SO4 2-) associated to PM2.5 particle fraction at two urban sites in the city of Thessaloniki, northern Greece, an urban traffic site (UT) and urban background site (UB). Ionic constituents represent a significant fraction of PM2.5 mass (29.6 at UT and 41.5 % at UB). The contribution of marine aerosol was low (<1.5 %). Secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) represent a significant fraction of PM2.5 mass contributing to 26.9 ± 12.4 % and 39.2 ± 13.2 % at UT and UB sites, respectively. Nitrate and sulfate are fully neutralized by ammonium under the existing conditions. The ionic constituents were evaluated in relation to their spatial and temporal variation, their gaseous precursors, meteorological conditions, local and long-range transport. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Kassomenos P.A.,University of Ioannina | Kelessis A.,Municipality of Thessaloniki | Petrakakis M.,Municipality of Thessaloniki | Zoumakis N.,Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki | And 2 more authors.
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2012

During the last years several attempts were made to introduce various air quality indices, defined for a specific air pollutant or a mixture of pollutants, based on standards and guidelines proposed by international organizations. In this work, air quality data (CO, SO 2, O 3, PM 10 and NO 2) corresponding to the six-year period between 2004 and 2009 and collected at three monitoring stations in Thessaloniki, the second largest Greek city, were used in order to compute three different air quality indices. The first index was based on individual pollutants and was employed to characterise the air quality status for each one of the air pollutants separately, whereas the second index was based on a combination of pollutants in both the short and the long terms. The results showed that when individual pollutants were used, the air quality in the city-centre could be characterised as "bad" for 47% of the days for PM 10, "bad" for 89% of the days for NO 2 and "bad to severe" for 13% of the days for O 3. Similarly, the indices based on a mixture of pollutants showed that in the city centre 43% of the days are "problematic to very poor" in terms of the air quality, whereas in the suburbs 54% of the days are found in the range of "good to very good". Furthermore, the use of biometeorological air quality indices that take into account the adverse health effects of air pollution on public health showed that the overall air quality is poor in the city centre for 58% of the days studied, while at the peripheral sites and during Sundays the air quality seems to be improved significantly, with relevant percentages equal to 18% and 13% respectively. Moreover, weekly and neighbourhood patterns were detected by all groups of indices. On the whole, all of the methodologies used revealed that the air quality in Thessaloniki is poor and that PM 10 is the main contributor to this. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Kassomenos P.A.,University of Ioannina | Kelessis A.,Municipality of Thessaloniki | Paschalidou A.K.,University of Ioannina | Petrakakis M.,Municipality of Thessaloniki
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2011

The identification of local and remote particulate pollution sources, as well as the understanding of the factors determining the spatial and temporal variability of the particulate matter in urban areas is an issue of increasing public concern, since the above actions are absolutely essential for the design of effective particulate pollution control strategies. In the present study, the sources and the factors affecting the particulate pollution were studied in Thessaloniki, the second largest Greek city, in order to develop the necessary scientific framework for the subsequent development of integrated mitigation and control strategies and the design and implementation of effective environmental policies. Hourly PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM c concentrations from two monitoring sites (the Egnatia-Dimarchio and the Eptapyrgio stations) were therefore correlated to gaseous pollutant concentrations (CO, NO, NO 2, NO x, SO 2 and O 3) and meteorological parameters (temperature, wind speed and relative humidity) during the 2-year period between June 2006 and May 2008. The analysis revealed that both sites experienced poor air quality, while a large number of exceedances of the daily and annual EC objectives were observed, especially during the cold season. Positive correlation between particles and NO x in DHM, provided evidence about higher combustion-related emissions during the cold season, whereas increased contribution of secondary particles was suggested during the warm season. In addition, Principal Component Analysis was used to identify the main particulate pollution sources, while the quantification of the combustion and the non-combustion-related fraction of particles was performed through Regression Analysis. Specifically, the non-combustion-related fraction ranged between 25.1 and 72.7%, depending on the site and the season. Finally, concentration roses were constructed in order to gain insight into the distribution of local emission sources around the monitoring sites. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Municipality of Thessaloniki, University of Ioannina and Democritus University of Thrace
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2016

Metro-railways are considered to be a sustainable means of public transportation, as they contribute substantially to the reduction of air pollutant emissions through the decrease in the number of cars and heavy vehicles circulating in the road network. However, the works related to their construction may pose an extra burden in air quality status and consequently in public health. In the present study, we studied the possible effects of the metro-railway construction works in Thessaloniki, Greece, on public health through 2 well-established air quality indices, namely the PI and DAQI. The analysis suggested that there were excess high levels of PM10 measured in the close vicinity of the construction-sites during the period studied (2008-2014). These concentrations are likely to have originated from local construction sources rather than transport or continental secondary dust sources and might have an adverse health impact, as according to the PI index, the majority of days in the construction sites were grouped as low pollution or moderate pollution, while a small percentage of days (1.84%) were suggested to be unhealthy for the most vulnerable groups of the population. Similarly, the DAQI index revealed that the vast majority of days were grouped as poor air quality, while 5.50% of the days reflected the most oppressive conditions for public health, as they were characterized as very poor air quality. Given the need of reaching a compromise between future transportation sustainability and public health during the construction works, the feasibility of appropriate measures in the area should be examined.

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