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Jordan R.A.,Municipal Plaza | Schulze T.L.,Municipal Plaza | Schulze T.L.,Terry L Schulze Phd Inc. | Dolan M.C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2012

We conducted field trials to compare the relative repellent activity of two natural product compounds (nootkatone and carvacrol) with commercially available plant-derived (EcoSMART organic insect repellent) and permethrin-based (Repel Permanone) repellents against adult Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) by using treated coveralls. One day after treatment, nootkatone and carvacrol provided 100% repellency of I. scapularis adults, with nootkatone maintaining complete protection through 3 d, whereas carvacrol showed steadily declining repellency against I. scapularis during the 7-d course of the trials. Nootkatone was at least as effective against host-seeking A. americanum as against I. scapularis through 3 d. Carvacrol provided little protection against A. americanum adults. Roth natural compounds performed well initially in comparison with the commercial products. After 7 d, nootkatone was the most effective against both species followed in order of activity by Permanone, EcoSMART, and carvacrol. Nootkatone seems to have offer considerable potential as a clothing repellent against both I. scapularis and A. americanum. © 2012 Entomological Society of America. Source


Schulze T.L.,LLC LLC | Jordan R.A.,Municipal Plaza | White J.C.,Cooper Pest Solutions | Roegner V.E.,Rutgers University | Healy S.P.,Rutgers University
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2011

We used published accounts to describe the known statewide distribution of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, in New Jersey and field surveys to characterize the geographical range of A. americanum and selected A. americanumtransmitted pathogens in Monmouth County, the hypothesized northern limit of the species distribution. Ticks were collected using standardized methods from 50 widely dispersed public access areas within 18 municipalities to produce estimates of relative abundance among sites. Collected A. americanum adults were stored at -80°C until processed for DNA extraction. Individual ticks were subjected to polymerase chain reaction analyses to detect the presence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, E. ewingii, Rickettsia amblyommii, and Borrelia lonestari. The range of A. americanum was generally limited to the southern half of New Jersey. Within Monmouth County, we collected A. americanum from 9 of 18 municipalities (50%) and 24 (48%) of the surveyed properties. We found at least 1 pathogen at 17 (70.8%) sites located within 6 of 9 municipalities, while all 4 target pathogens were detected in 5 of those 6 (83.3%) municipalities. The geographical distribution of A. americanum and its associated pathogens appeared to be restricted to the southern portion of the county. Possible factors governing the distribution are discussed. © 2011 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc. Source


Jordan R.A.,Municipal Plaza | Dolan M.C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Piesman J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Schulze T.L.,Municipal Plaza | Schulze T.L.,Terry L Schulze Phd Inc.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2011

We evaluated the ability of dual applications of natural, plant-derived acaricides to suppress nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Lyme disease endemic area of New Jersey. An aqueous formulation of 2% nootkatone provided >90% control of I. scapularis through 7 d. Control declined to 80.9% at 14 d, and a second application was made that provided >95% control through the remaining 4 wk of the nymphal season. Nootkatone provided >90% control of A. americanum through 35 d postapplication. Applications of 2% carvacrol and EcoTrol T&O resulted in rapid knockdown of both tick species, but control declined significantly to 76.7 and 73.7%, respectively, after 14 d when a second application was made that extended control of both tick species to between 86.2 and 94.8% at 21 d. Subsequently, control declined steadily in all plots by 42 d postapplication except for I. scapularis in carvacrol-treated plots, where levels of control >90% were observed through 35 d. Of the three compounds tested, 2% nootkatone provided the most consistent results, with 96.5 and 91.9% control of I. scapularis and A. americanum through 42 and 35 d, respectively. The ability of plant-derived natural products to quickly suppress and maintain significant control of populations of these medically important ticks may represent a future alternative to the use of conventional synthetic acaricides. In addition, the demonstrated efficacy of properly-timed backpack sprayer application may enable homeowner access to these minimal-risk acaricides. © 2011 Entomological Society of America. Source


Schulze T.L.,Municipal Plaza | Schulze T.L.,Terry L. Schulze Inc. | Jordan R.A.,Municipal Plaza | Healy S.P.,Monmouth County Mosquito Extermination Commission | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2013

The etiological agents that cause human babesiosis (Babesia microti) and Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) share a common tick vector (Ixodes scapularis Say) and rodent reservoir (Peromyscus leucopus), but because the geographical distribution of babesiosis is more restricted than Lyme disease, it was not considered a nationally notifiable disease until 2011. Although recent studies have shown dramatic increases in the number of cases of babesiosis and expansion of its range, little is known about infection and coinfection prevalence of these pathogens in the primary tick vector. Of the 478 I. scapularis nymphs collected within six Monmouth County, NJ, municipalities between 2004 and 2006, 4.0 and 10.0% were infected with B. microti and B. burgdorferi, respectively, while 2.9% were coinfected. Analysis of the 610 I. scapularis adults collected during the same period yielded an infection prevalence of 8.2% for B. microti and 45.2% for B. burgdorferi, while 6.2% were coinfected. The potential public health importance of these findings is discussed. © 2013 Entomological Society of America. Source

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