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Perona J.S.,CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa | Covas M.-I.,Municipal Institute for Medical Research IMIM Hospital del Mar | Covas M.-I.,CIBER ISCIII | Fito M.,Municipal Institute for Medical Research IMIM Hospital del Mar | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

The first results of the PREDIMED (PREvencion con Dieta MEDiterranea) randomized trial, after 3-month intervention, showed that the Mediterranean Diet (MD), supplemented with either virgin olive oil (VOO) or nuts, reduced systolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol when compared to a control (low-fat diet) group. Serum TG levels are an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease and are strongly determined by very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) composition, which can be specifically modified by dietary lipid source. Within the context of the PREDIMED study, we assessed the VLDL composition in 50 participants after 3 months of intake of two MD, supplemented with VOO or nuts, compared with a low-fat diet. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were reduced in subjects on the MD+nuts, whereas HDL-cholesterol increased after consumption of the MD+VOO. Serum TG concentrations were significantly lowered in both intervention groups (either the MD+nuts or MD+VOO). However, only the MD+VOO reduced the VLDL-cholesterol and VLDL-TG content and the TG/apolipoprotein B ratio in VLDL, which was used to estimate particle size. Although VLDL-TG fatty acids were very slightly modified, VLDL-TG molecular species in VLDL after consumption of the MD+nuts were characterized by a higher presence of linoleic acid (18:2, n-6), whereas after the intake of MD+VOO, they were rich in oleic acid (18:1, n-9). Therefore, we conclude that the reduction in systemic TG concentrations observed after consumption of the MD may be explained by reduction of the lipid core of VLDL and a selective modification of the molecular species composition in the particle. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Vassilaki M.,University of Crete | Vassilaki M.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | Chatzi L.,University of Crete | Bagkeris E.,University of Crete | And 9 more authors.
Maternal and Child Nutrition

Although benefits of breastfeeding have been widely promoted and accepted, exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life is far from the norm in many countries. In a prospective mother-child cohort study in Crete, Greece ('Rhea' study), we assessed the frequency of breastfeeding and its socio-demographic predictors. Information on breastfeeding was available for a period of 18 months post-partum for a cohort of 1181 mothers and their 1208 infants. The frequency of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding in the first month post-partum was 17.8% and 3.4%, respectively, with almost three-quarters of women (73.6%) ceasing any breastfeeding after 4 months post-partum. Women were less likely to initiate breastfeeding if they had a caesarean delivery (CD), whereas they were more likely to initiate breastfeeding if they had a higher education or gave birth to a private clinic. Among women breastfeeding, those who had a CD, were ex-smokers or smokers during pregnancy had a statistically significant shorter duration of breastfeeding, whereas higher education and being on leave from work were associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding. Study findings suggest suboptimal levels of exclusive and any breastfeeding and difficulty maintaining longer breastfeeding duration. CD and smoking are common in Greece and are strong negative predictors for breastfeeding initiation and/or duration, necessitating targeting women at risk early in the prenatal period so as to have a meaningful increase of breastfeeding practices in future cohorts of mothers. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Bohle B.,Colorectal Surgery Unit | Bohle B.,Municipal Institute for Medical Research IMIM Hospital del Mar | Pera M.,Colorectal Surgery Unit | Pera M.,Municipal Institute for Medical Research IMIM Hospital del Mar | And 8 more authors.

Background: Recent reports have suggested that anastomotic leakage is associated with greater rates of tumor recurrence and cancer-specific mortality after surgery for colorectal cancer. The impact of postoperative intra-abdominal infection on long-term oncologic results, however, is still controversial, and no direct causal relationship has been found between both processes. Our aim was to investigate the influence of postoperative intraabdominal infection on angiogenesis and tumor growth in an animal model of colon cancer. Methods: Balb/c mice were randomized immediately after injection of 5 × 106 B51LiM cells into the cecal wall into 2 groups: cecal resection without postoperative infection (group 1), and cecal resection with postoperative intra-abdominal infection (group 2). A total of 18 days after cell injection, cecectomy was performed, and infection was induced in group 2 by intraperitoneal injection of 3 × 108 colony-forming units of Bacteroides fragilis. On postoperative day 12, the mice were killed. Results: Comparing group 1 with group 2, tumor recurrence was more frequent in animals with intraabdominal infection (65% vs 100%, respectively; P = .02). VEGF serum levels were greater at the time of sacrifice in the group with infection (11 ± 10 vs 30 ± 23 pg/mL; P < .05). Tumor angiogenesis was also increased in the postoperative infection group. The mean (± standard deviation) microvessel density was 16 ± 7 versus 28 ± 11 vessels per high-power field (P < .05). Conclusion: We concluded that postoperative intra-abdominal infection increases angiogenesis and tumor recurrence after operative excision of a colon cancer in mice. © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Grau M.,Municipal Institute for Medical Research IMIM Hospital del Mar | Grau M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Bongard V.,Toulouse 1 University Capitole | Fito M.,Municipal Institute for Medical Research IMIM Hospital del Mar | And 12 more authors.
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases

Background. - Cigarette smoking, raised blood pressure, unfavourable lipid concentrations, diabetes and - more indirectly - obesity, are responsible for most coronary heart disease events in developed and developing countries. Aims. - The objective of our study was to compare prevalence, treatment and control of cardiovascular risk factors in two samples of men with stable coronary heart disease, recruited in France and Spain. Methods. -Standardized measurements of body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, plasma lipids, glycaemia, and smoking were collected and drug use was registered. Cross-sectional comparisons were made between French and Spanish samples. Results. - Data from 982 individuals were analysed (420 French and 562 Spanish men). Current smoking was more frequent in Spain (p < 0.001 ), whereas hypertension and uncontrolled blood pressure were more frequent in France (p < 0.001 ). Mean concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly higher in France (p < 0.001 ). No significant differences were observed regarding obesity, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and diabetes. More than 97% of participants presented with at least one of the following conditions: hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, obesity or smoking. Antiplatelet agents, calcium inhibitors, diuretics and hypoglycaemic drugs were used more frequently in France, whereas angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and lipid-lowering treatments were used more frequently in Spain. Conclusion. -Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is high among French and Spanish patients with stable coronary heart disease, with differences between countries regarding the distribution of the various risk factors. A great proportion of patients do not reach the recommended levels for risk factor control. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source

Cerutti A.,Municipal Institute for Medical Research IMIM Hospital del Mar | Cerutti A.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies | Cerutti A.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Cols M.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | And 6 more authors.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Adaptive co-evolution of mammals and bacteria has led to the establishment of complex commensal communities on mucosal surfaces. In spite of having available a wealth of immune-sensing and effector mechanisms capable of triggering inflammation in response to microbial intrusion, mucosal immune cells establish an intimate dialogue with microbes to generate a state of hyporesponsiveness against commensals and active readiness against pathogens. A key component of this homeostatic balance is IgA, a noninflammatory antibody isotype produced by mucosal B cells through class switching. This process involves activation of B cells by IgA-inducing signals originating from mucosal T cells, dendritic cells, and epithelial cells. Here, we review the mechanisms by which mucosal B cells undergo IgA diversification and production and discuss how the study of primary immunodeficiencies facilitates better understanding of mucosal IgA responses in humans. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences. Source

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