Boogaard H.,Institute for Risk Assessment science IRAS |
Kos G.P.A.,Energy Research Center of the Netherlands |
Weijers E.P.,Energy Research Center of the Netherlands |
Janssen N.A.H.,Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM |
And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2011
Policies to reduce outdoor air pollution concentrations are often assessed on the basis of the regulated pollutants. Whether these are the most appropriate components to assess the potential health benefits is questionable, as other health-relevant pollutants may be more strongly related to traffic. The aim of this study is to compare the contrast in concentration between major roads and (sub)urban background for a large range of pollutants and to analyze the magnitude of the measured difference in the street - background for major streets with different street configurations. Measurements of PM10, PM2.5, particle number concentrations (PNC), black carbon (BC), elemental composition of PM10 and PM2.5 and NOx were conducted simultaneously in eight major streets and nine (sub)urban background locations in the Netherlands. Measurements were done six times for a week during a six month period in 2008. High contrasts between busy streets and background locations in the same city were found for chromium, copper and iron (factor 2-3). These elements were especially present in the coarse fraction of PM. In addition, high contrasts were found for BC and NOx (factor 1.8), typically indicators of direct combustion emissions. The contrast for PNC was similar to BC. NO2 contrast was lower (factor 1.5). The largest contrast was found for two street canyons and two streets with buildings at one side of the street only. The contrast between busy streets and urban background in NO2 was less than the contrast found for BC, PNC and elements indicative of non-exhaust emissions, adding evidence that NO2 is not representing (current) traffic well. The study supports a substantial role for non-exhaust emissions including brake- and tyre wear and road dust in addition to direct combustion emissions. Significant underestimation of disease burden may occur when relying too much on the regulated components. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Buster M.C.A.,Municipal Health Service Amsterdam |
Van Brussel G.H.A.,Municipal Health Service Amsterdam |
Van Ree J.M.,Central Committee on the Treatment of Drug Addicts |
Van Ree J.M.,Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience
European Addiction Research | Year: 2011
This study aims to asses the influence of inhalable heroin on pulmonary function in chronic heroin-dependent patients treated with inhalable heroin. Among 32 patients (all cigarette smokers), a spirometric test was conducted at baseline and after an average period of 10 months of treatment with medically prescribed heroin. Patients showed a high frequency of pulmonary dysfunction at baseline [34%, with percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (%FEV 1) <80%]. However, after excluding those who started pulmonary treatment (n = 2) or who used heroin intravenously only (n = 2), no statistically significant differences in %FEV1 between baseline and follow-up were observed (n = 28; mean %FEV1 86% at baseline vs. 91% at follow-up; p = 0.09). This small and relatively brief study suggests that 10 months of co-prescribed inhalable heroine base does not seem to (further) deteriorate pulmonary function in chronic, cigarette smoking treatment refractory heroin addicts. Screening for and treatment of pulmonary dysfunction is recommended for methadone patients with and without co-prescribed heroin. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Braam A.W.,Altrecht Mental Health Care |
Braam A.W.,Medical Center Amsterdam |
Schrier A.C.,Altrecht Mental Health Care |
Tuinebreijer W.C.,Municipal Health Service Amsterdam |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2010
Background: Depressive patients may derive consolation as well as struggle from their religion. Outside the Western-Christian cultures these phenomena did not receive much empirical exploration. The current study aims to describe how positive and negative religious coping strategies relate to depressive symptoms in different ethnic groups in The Netherlands. Methods: Interview data were derived from the second phase of the Amsterdam Health Monitor, a population based survey, with stratification for ethnicity (native Dutch N = 309, Moroccan 180, Turkish 202, Surinamese/Antillean 85). Religious coping was assessed using a 10-item version of Pargament's Brief RCOPE; depression assessment included the SCL-90-R and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results: The five positive religious coping items constituted one sub-scale, but the five negative religious coping items had to be examined as representing separate coping strategies. Across the ethnic groups, negative religious coping strategies had several positive associations with depressive symptoms, subthreshold depression, and major depressive disorder: the most robust association was found for the item 'wondered whether God has abandoned me'. Other significant associations were found for interpreting situations as punishment by God, questioning whether God exists, and expressing anger to God. Limitations: Due to the two-phase design and low participation in this urban sample, the non-response was substantial. Therefore, the study focused on associations, not on prevalences. Conclusion: The more or less universal finding about 'feeling abandoned by God' may suggest how depression represents an existential void, irrespective of the religious background. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Boogaard H.,University Utrecht |
Janssen N.A.H.,National institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM |
Fischer P.H.,National institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM |
Kos G.P.A.,Energy Research Center of the Netherlands |
And 8 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012
Background: Evaluations of the effectiveness of air pollution policy interventions are scarce. This study investigated air pollution at street level before and after implementation of local traffic policies including low emission zones (LEZ) directed at heavy duty vehicles (trucks) in five Dutch cities. Methods: Measurements of PM10, PM2.5, 'soot', NO2, NOx, and elemental composition of PM10 and PM2.5 were conducted simultaneously at eight streets, six urban background locations and four suburban background locations before (2008) and two years after implementation of the policies (2010). The four suburban locations were selected as control locations to account for generic air pollution trends and weather differences. Results: All pollutant concentrations were lower in 2010 than in 2008. For traffic-related pollutants including 'soot' and NOx and elemental composition (Cr, Cu, Fe) the decrease did not differ significantly between the intervention locations and the suburban control locations. Only for PM2.5 reductions were considerably larger at urban streets (30%) and urban background locations (27%) than at the matching suburban control locations (20%). In one urban street where traffic intensity was reduced with 50%, 'soot', NOx and NO2 concentrations were reduced substantially more (41, 36 and 25%) than at the corresponding suburban control location (22, 14 and 7%). Conclusion: With the exception of one urban street where traffic flows were drastically reduced, the local traffic policies including LEZ were too modest to produce significant decreases in traffic-related air pollution concentrations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Boogaard H.,University Utrecht |
Janssen N.A.H.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment |
Fischer P.H.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment |
Kos G.P.A.,Energy Research Center of the Netherlands |
And 6 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2012
Background: Measuring the oxidative potential of airborne particulate matter (PM) may provide a more health-based exposure measure by integrating various biologically relevant properties of PM into a single predictor of biological activity. Objectives: We aimed to assess the contrast in oxidative potential of PM collected at major urban streets and background locations, the associaton of oxidative potential with other PM characteristics, and the oxidative potential in different PM size fractions. Methods: Measurements of PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM 10), PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5), soot, elemental composition, and oxidative potential of PM were conducted simultaneously in samples from 8 major streets and 10 urban and suburban background locations in the Netherlands. Six 1-week measurements were performed at each location over a 6-month period in 2008. Oxidative potential was measured as the ability to generate hydroxyl radicals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in all PM 10 samples and a subset of PM 2.5 samples. Results: The PM 10 oxidative potential of samples from major streets was 3.6 times higher than at urban background locations, exceeding the contrast for PM mass, soot, and all measured chemical PM characteristics. The contrast between major streets and suburban background locations was even higher (factor of 6.5). Oxidative potential was highly correlated with soot, barium, chromium, copper, iron, and manganese. Oxidative potential of PM 10 was 4.6 times higher than the oxidative potential of PM 2.5 when expressed per volume unit and 3.1 times higher when expressed per mass unit. Conclusions: The oxidative potential of PM near major urban roads was highly elevated compared with urban and suburban background locations, and the contrast was greater than that for any other measured PM characteristic.
Koedijk F.D.H.,RIVM National Institute of Public Health and the Environment |
van Bergen J.E.A.M.,RIVM National Institute of Public Health and the Environment |
Dukers-Muijrers N.H.T.M.,Public Health Service South Limburg |
Dukers-Muijrers N.H.T.M.,Maastricht University |
And 5 more authors.
International Journal of STD and AIDS | Year: 2012
National surveillance data from 2006 to 2010 of the Dutch sexually transmitted infection (STI) centres were used to analyse current practices on testing extragenital sites for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in men who have sex with men (MSM) and women. In MSM, 76.0% and 88.9% were tested at least at one extragenital site (pharyngeal and/or anorectal) for chlamydia and gonorrhoea, respectively; for women this was 20.5% and 30.2%. Testing more than one anatomic site differed by STI centre, ranging from 2% to 100%. In MSM tested at multiple sites, 63.0% and 66.5% of chlamydia and gonorrhoea diagnoses, respectively, would have been missed if screened at the urogenital site only, mainly anorectal infections. For women tested at multiple sites, the proportions of missed chlamydia and gonorrhoea diagnoses would have been 12.9% and 30.0%, respectively. Testing extragenital sites appears warranted, due to the numerous infections that would have been missed. Adding anorectal screening to urogenital screening for all MSM visiting an STI centre should be recommended. Since actual testing practices differ by centre, there is a need for clearer guidelines. Routine gonorrhoea and chlamydia screening at multiple sites in STI centres should be investigated further as this might be a more effective approach to reduce transmission than current practice.
Koedijk F.D.H.,National Institute of Public Health and the Environment |
Van Veen M.G.,National Institute of Public Health and the Environment |
De Neeling A.J.,National Institute of Public Health and the Environment |
Linde G.B.,Municipal Health Service Amsterdam |
Van Der Sande M.A.B.,National Institute of Public Health and the Environment
Sexually Transmitted Infections | Year: 2010
Introduction: Rapid development of Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistance to several antibiotics in recent years threatens treatment and prevention. Targeted surveillance of new resistance patterns and insight into networks and determinants are essential to control this trend. Methods: Since the Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance (GRAS) project was implemented within the Dutch national sexually transmitted infection (STI) surveillance network in July 2006, participating STI centres have collected a culture from each gonorrhoea patient. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime using Etest. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance. Results: Between July 2006 and July 2008, prevalence of resistance to penicillin was 10%, to tetracycline 22% and to ciprofloxacin 42%. Resistance to cefotaxime was not found, although minimum inhibitory concentrations higher than 0.125 mg/l drifted upward (p<0.05). Ciprofloxacin resistance rose from 35% in 2006 to 46% in 2008 (p<0.05), despite 2003 guidelines naming cefotaxime as first-choice therapy. In men, ciprofloxacin resistance was higher in men having sex with men (MSM) than in heterosexual men (adjusted OR 2.0, 95% CI : 1.5 to 2.6). In women, it was higher in commercial sex workers (adjusted OR 25.0, 95% CI 7.7 to 78.2) and women aged over 35 years (adjusted OR 8.2, 95% CI 3.0 to 22.7) than in other women. Conclusion: Ciprofloxacin resistance in The Netherlands is increasing, and is particularly found in MSM, older women, and female sex workers. No resistance to current first-choice therapy was found, but alertness to potential clinical failures is essential. By merging epidemiological and microbiological data in GRAS, specific high-risk transmission groups can be identified and policy adjusted when needed.
Ikram U.Z.,University of Amsterdam |
Snijder M.B.,University of Amsterdam |
Fassaert T.J.L.,Municipal Health Service Amsterdam |
Schene A.H.,Radboud University Nijmegen |
And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015
Background: European research on the association between perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) and health is importantly lacking. It is also unknown how much PED contributes to disease prevalence. In this study, we quantified the contribution of PED to depression in five ethnic groups in a middle-size European city. Methods: We used cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study (Healthy Life in an Urban Setting), collected from January 2011 to June 2013 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. We included a random sample of 1753 ethnic Dutch, 1143 South-Asian Surinamese, 1794 African Surinamese, 1098 Ghanaians and 850 Turks, aged 18-70 years. PED was assessed using the Everyday Discrimination Scale. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used for assessing depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder (MDD). We used logistic regression and calculated the contribution of PED to depressive symptoms and MDD using the population attributable fractions. Results: Depressive symptoms and MDD were most common in Turks and South-Asian Surinamese, and lowest in ethnic Dutch. PED had a positive association with depressive symptoms and MDD in only the ethnic minority groups. The contributions of PED to depressive symptoms and MDD were around 25% in both the Surinamese groups, and Turks, and ∼15% in Ghanaians. Conclusion: We conclude that PED contributes considerably to depression in ethnic minority groups in a European context. As such, ethnic inequalities in depression could be reduced substantially if ethnic minority groups would not perceive any ethnic discrimination. We encourage more European research on the health impact of PED. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Hoek G.,University Utrecht |
Beelen R.,University Utrecht |
Kos G.,Energy Research Center of the Netherlands |
Dijkema M.,Municipal Health Service Amsterdam |
And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2011
There are currently no epidemiological studies on health effects of long-term exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP), largely because data on spatial exposure contrasts for UFP is lacking. The objective of this study was to develop a land use regression (LUR) model for UFP in the city of Amsterdam. Total particle number concentrations (PNC), PM10, PM2.5, and its soot content were measured directly outside 50 homes spread over the city of Amsterdam. Each home was measured during one week. Continuous measurements at a central urban background site were used to adjust the average concentration for temporal variation. Predictor variables (traffic, address density, land use) were obtained using geographic information systems. A model including the product of traffic intensity and the inverse distance to the nearest road squared, address density, and location near the port explained 67% of the variability in measured PNC. LUR models for PM2.5, soot, and coarse particles (PM10, PM2.5) explained 57%, 76%, and 37% of the variability in measured concentrations. Predictions from the PNC model correlated highly with predictions from LUR models for PM2.5, soot, and coarse particles. A LUR model for PNC has been developed, with similar validity as previous models for more commonly measured pollutants. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
PubMed | University Utrecht, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment and Municipal Health Service Amsterdam
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) | Year: 2017
We studied the association of daily mortality with short-term variations in the ambient concentrations of major gaseous pollutants and PM in the Netherlands. The magnitude of the association in the four major urban areas was compared with that in the remainder of the country. Daily cause-specific mortality counts, air quality, temperature, relative humidity, and influenza data were obtained from 1986 to 1994. The relationship between daily mortality and air pollution was modeled using Poisson regression analysis. We adjusted for potential confounding due to long-term and seasonal trends, influenza epidemics, ambient temperature and relative humidity, day of the week, and holidays, using generalized additive models. Influenza episodes were associated with increased mortality up to 3 weeks later. Daily mortality was significantly associated with the concentration of all air pollutants. An increase in the PM