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de Barros Couto E.,Municipal Government of Sao Paulo
Intelligent Systems Reference Library | Year: 2015

This text suggests on how to calculate a sample size under the use of an instrument for collecting data formed by check-block items. The arguments for this suggestion are based on Combinatorics and Paraconsistency theories. Our purpose is to suggest a practical and simple calculation procedure to obtain an acceptable sample size to collect information, organize it, and analyze data from an application of an instrument for collecting medical data, based exclusively on discrete items (categorical items), i.e., each instrument item is considered a non-parametric variable with finite number of categories. In Bio-sciences it is very common to use survey instruments based on this type of items: clinical protocols, hospital registers, questionnaires, and other inquiring tools consider a sequence of organized categorical items. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. Source


Masi E.,Municipal Government of Sao Paulo | Pino F.A.,Biological Institute | Santos M.d.G.S.,Municipal Government of Sao Paulo | Genehr L.,Municipal Government of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2010

This article provides analyses of data on the premises infestation by commensal rodents collected during the 2006 Urban Rodent Survey, in Sao Paulo city, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sample survey was used to visit 23,512 premises, and logistic regression models were estimated in order to understand the relationships among the risk factors and the infestation probability. The premises infestation rates were 23. 1% for all rodents, 12. 7% for roof rat, 9. 4% for Norway rat and 1. 7% for house mouse. Factors found to be related to infestation levels were: socioeconomic conditions (human development index and income), premises features (commercial, strictly residential and vacant lots), and environmental resources (access, harborage and food). The analysis of odds ratios showed that access by the building structure favours roof rat and access by the sewage system favours Norway rat. Harborage in ceiling cracks are determinant for roof rat, harborage in wall cracks and in dense bush for Norway rat, and harborage in waste or in building material for house mouse infestations. Available animal food favour all the three species, fruit trees favour Norway and roof rats, human food is important for house mouse: therefore a natural partition of the environmental resources among the species was observed. The results obtained in this article add some knowledge on the biology and behaviour of commensal rodents. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

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