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Lakowa N.,University of Leipzig | Trieu N.,University of Leipzig | Flehmig G.,University of Leipzig | Lohmann T.,Municipal Clinic Dresden Neustadt | And 7 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2015

Adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia have been shown to be associated with shorter telomere length, which may reflect aging, altered cell proliferation and adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction. In individuals with obesity, differences in fat distribution and AT cellular composition may contribute to obesity related metabolic diseases. Here, we tested the hypotheses that telomere lengths (TL) are different between: (1) abdominal subcutaneous and omental fat depots, (2) superficial and deep abdominal subcutaneous AT (SAT), and (3) adipocytes and cells of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). We further asked whether AT TL is related to age, anthropometric and metabolic traits. TL was analyzed by quantitative PCR in total human genomic DNA isolated from paired subcutaneous and visceral AT of 47 lean and 50 obese individuals. In subgroups, we analyzed TL in isolated small and large adipocytes and SVF cells. We find significantly shorter TL in subcutaneous compared to visceral AT (P < 0.001) which is consistent in men and subgroups of lean and obese, and individuals with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Shorter TL in SAT is entirely due to shorter TL in the SVF compared to visceral AT (P < 0.01). SAT TL is most strongly correlated with age (r = -0.205, P < 0.05) and independently of age with HbA1c (r = -0.5, P < 0.05). We found significant TL differences between superficial SAT of lean and obese as well as between individuals with our without T2D, but not between the two layers of SAT. Our data indicate that fat depot differences in TL mainly reflect shorter TL of SVF cells. In addition, we found an age and BMI-independent relationship between shorter TL and HbA1c suggesting that chronic hyperglycemia may impair the regenerative capacity of AT more strongly than obesity alone. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Brune J.E.,University of Leipzig | Kern M.,University of Leipzig | Kunath A.,University of Leipzig | Kunath A.,German Center for Diabetes Research | And 11 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2016

Objective Independent previous studies in both rodents and humans suggest a role of developmental genes in the origin of obesity and body fat distribution. Here, the hypothesis that human adipose tissue (AT) expression of the developmental genes homeobox transcription factors C9 (HOXC9) and C10 (HOXC10) is fat depot-specific and related to obesity-related traits was tested. Methods In 636 individuals, HOXC9 and HOXC10 mRNA expression was investigated in paired abdominal subcutaneous (SC) and omental AT samples in relation to a wide range of age, BMI, fat distribution, and metabolic parameters and in subfractions of isolated adipocytes and cells of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). Results HOXC9 and HOXC10 mRNA expression is significantly higher in SC compared to omental AT. HOXC9 and HOXC10 mRNA expression significantly correlates with body fat mass, even after adjustment for age and gender. In smaller subgroups (depending on the availability of data), fat depot-related significant gender- and BMI-independent associations between HOXC9 and HOXC10 gene expression and parameters of glucose metabolism and AT biology were found (e.g., adipocyte size). Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that HOXC9 and HOXC10 may play an important role in the development of obesity, adverse fat distribution, and subsequent alterations in whole-body metabolism and AT function. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

Chakaroun R.,University of Leipzig | Raschpichler M.,University of Leipzig | Kloting N.,University of Leipzig | Oberbach A.,University of Leipzig | And 9 more authors.
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2012

Chemerin is a chemoattractant adipokine that regulates adipogenesis and may induce insulin resistance. Chemerin serum concentrations are elevated in obese, insulin-resistant, and inflammatory states in vivo. Here we investigate the role of omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue chemerin and CMKLR1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in human obesity. In addition, we test the hypothesis that changes in chemerin serum concentrations are primarily associated with reduced body fat mass in the context of 3 weight loss intervention studies. Chemerin serum concentration was measured in 740 individuals in a cross-sectional (n = 629) study including a subgroup (n = 161) for which OM and SC chemerin mRNA expression has been analyzed as well as in 3 interventions including 12 weeks of exercise (n = 60), 6 months of calorie-restricted diet (n = 19) studies, and 12 months after bariatric surgery (n = 32). Chemerin mRNA is significantly higher expressed in adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and correlates with circulating chemerin, body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat, C-reactive protein, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and glucose infusion rate in euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps. CMKLR1 mRNA expression was not significantly different between the 2 fat depots. Obesity surgery-induced weight loss causes a significant reduction on both OM and SC chemerin expression. All interventions led to significantly reduced chemerin serum concentrations. Decreased chemerin serum concentrations significantly correlate with improved glucose infusion rate and reduced C-reactive protein levels independently of changes in BMI. Insulin resistance and inflammation are BMI-independent predictors of elevated chemerin serum concentrations. Reduced chemerin expression and serum concentration may contribute to improved insulin sensitivity and subclinical inflammation beyond significant weight loss. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Keller M.,University of Leipzig | Kralisch S.,University of Leipzig | Rohde K.,University of Leipzig | Schleinitz D.,University of Leipzig | And 11 more authors.
Diabetologia | Year: 2014

Aims/hypothesis Epigenetic alterations may influence the metabolic pathways involved in human obesity. We hypothesised that global DNA methylation levels in adipose tissue might be associated with obesity and related phenotypes. Methods We measured global DNA methylation levels in paired samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and omental visceral adipose tissue (OVAT) from 51 individuals, and in leucocytes from 559 Sorbs, a population from Germany, using LUminometric Methylation Assay (LUMA). To further investigate the underlying mechanisms of the observed associations, we measured global methylation levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to glucose, insulin and lipids. Results Global methylation levels (±SD) were significantly higher in OVAT (74.27% ± 2.2%) compared with SAT (71.97% ± 2.4%; paired t test, p < 1 × 10-9). Furthermore, global methylation levels in SAT were positive correlates of measures of fat distribution (waist measurement, WHR) and glucose homeostasis (HbA1c) (all p < 0.015 after accounting for multiple testing and covariates). Global methylation levels in the German Sorb cohort were associated with glucose homeostasis, but this association did not withstand adjustment for covariates. Exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to insulin, palmitate and glucose decreased global methylation levels 1 h after treatment relative to controls. Conclusions/interpretation Our data suggest that the variability in global methylation in adipose tissue might be related to alterations in glucose metabolism. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Rohde K.,University of Leipzig | Keller M.,University of Leipzig | Klos M.,University of Leipzig | Schleinitz D.,University of Leipzig | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Medicine | Year: 2014

Epigenetic processes such as dynamic promoter methylation may play a role in obesity, fat distribution and its accompanied metabolic alterations. TMEM18 is a candidate gene for body mass index (BMI) comprising the second largest effect size among all loci identified so far via GWAS. We hypothesized that differential TMEM18 gene expression in visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) may be a consequence of depot specific differential methylation at the TMEM18 promoter region. Differential methylation levels may confer fat depot specific correlations with measures of obesity and fat distribution. Here, we measured TMEM18 mRNA expression in VAT and SAT from 500 subjects. A total of 146 Caucasian individuals were investigated for differential methylation levels in VAT vs. SAT at three CpG sites. Subsequently, we tested for potential correlation of methylation levels with anthropometric and metabolic parameters. (1) In 500 individuals, we observed significantly decreased mRNA expression in SAT (paired t-test, P < 0.0001) compared to VAT with strongest effects in obese subjects. (2) We identified significantly higher methylation levels for the entire CpG locus in SAT (paired t-test, P = 0.00015). In 146 individuals, we detected positive correlations between CpG methylation levels in SAT with parameters of obesity and fat distribution (e.g., BMI, r = 0.173; P = 0.036; visceral fat area, r = 0.246; P = 0.004) and with metabolic traits (P ≤ 0.05). However, these correlations did not withstand adjustment for covariates. Our data suggest an adipose tissue depot specific TMEM18 promoter methylation that may mediate inter-depot specific variance in TMEM18 mRNA expression. Higher mean methylation across the entire CpG locus in SAT compared to VAT. Lower TMEM18 mRNA expression levels in SAT compared to VAT. TMEM18 mRNA expression levels are related to phenotypes of obesity and glucose metabolism. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

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