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Federzoni E.A.,University of Bern | Valk P.J.M.,Erasmus Medical Center | Torbett B.E.,Scripps Research Institute | Haferlach T.,Munich Leukemia Laboratory GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012

The transcription factor PU.1 is a master regulator of myeloid differentiation and function. On the other hand, only scarce information is available on PU.1-regulated genes involved in cell survival. We now identified the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase 3 (HK3), a gene with cytoprotective functions, as transcriptional target of PU.1. Interestingly, HK3 expression is highly associated with the myeloid lineage and was significantly decreased in acute myeloid leukemia patients compared with normal granulocytes. Moreover, HK3 expression was significantly lower in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) compared with non-APL patient samples. In line with the observations in primary APL patient samples, we observed significantly higher HK3 expression during neutrophil differentiation of APL cell lines. Moreover, knocking down PU.1 impaired HK3 induction during neutrophil differentiation. In vivo binding of PU.1 and PML-RARA to the HK3 promoter was found, and PML-RARA attenuated PU.1 activation of the HK3 promoter. Next, inhibiting HK3 in APL cell lines resulted in significantly reduced neutrophil differentiation and viability compared with control cells. Our findings strongly suggest that HK3 is: (1) directly activated by PU.1, (2) repressed by PML-RARA, and (3) functionally involved in neutrophil differentiation and cell viability of APL cells. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology. Source


Falini B.,University of Perugia | Macijewski K.,Munich Leukemia Laboratory GmbH | Weiss T.,Munich Leukemia Laboratory GmbH | Bacher U.,University of Hamburg | And 15 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2010

NPM1-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a provisional entity in the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms. The significance of multilineage dysplasia (MLD) in NPM1-mutated AML is unclear. Thus, in the 2008 WHO classification, NPM1-mutated AML with MLD is classified as AML with myelodysplasia (MD)-related changes (MRCs). We evaluated morphologically 318 NPM1-mutated AML patients and found MLD in 23.3%. Except for a male predominance and a lower fms-related tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) incidence in the MLD+ group, no differences were observed in age, sex, cytogenetics, and FLT3 - tyrosine kinase domain between NPM1-mutated AML with and without MLD. NPM1-mutated AML with and without MLD showed overlapping immunophenotype (CD34 negativity) and gene expression profile (CD34 down-regulation, HOX genes up-regulation). Moreover, overall and event-free survival did not differ among NPM1-mutated AML patients independently of whether they were MLD+ or MLD-, the NPM1-mutated/FLT3-ITD negative genotype showing the better prognosis. Lack of MLD impact on survival was confirmed by multivariate analysis that highlighted FLT3-ITD as the only significant prognostic parameter in NPM1-mutated AML. Our findings indicate that NPM1 mutations rather than MLD dictate the distinctive features of NPM1-mutated AML. Thus, irrespective of MLD, NPM1-mutated AML represents one disease entity clearly distinct from AML with MRCs. © 2010 by The American Society of Hematology. Source


Nitsche A.,University of Leipzig | Nitsche A.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Rose D.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Rose D.,Munich Leukemia Laboratory GmbH | And 10 more authors.
RNA | Year: 2015

Large-scale RNA sequencing has revealed a large number of long mRNA-like transcripts (lncRNAs) that do not code for proteins. The evolutionary history of these lncRNAs has been notoriously hard to study systematically due to their low level of sequence conservation that precludes comprehensive homology-based surveys and makes them nearly impossible to align. An increasing number of special cases, however, has been shown to be at least as old as the vertebrate lineage. Here we use the conservation of splice sites to trace the evolution of lncRNAs. We show that >85% of the human GENCODE lncRNAs were already present at the divergence of placental mammals and many hundreds of these RNAs date back even further. Nevertheless, we observe a fast turnover of intron/exon structures. We conclude that lncRNA genes are evolutionary ancient components of vertebrate genomes that show an unexpected and unprecedented evolutionary plasticity. We offer a public web service (http://splicemap.bioinf.unileipzig.de) that allows to retrieve sets of orthologous splice sites and to produce overview maps of evolutionarily conserved splice sites for visualization and further analysis. An electronic supplement containing the ncRNA data sets used in this study is available at http://www.bioinf.uni-leipzig.de/publications/supplements/12-001. © 2015 Nitsche et al. Source

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