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Multiscale Design Systems, LLC

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New York, NY, United States
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Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2013

ABSTRACT: An experimental and computational effort is proposed to develop a data-driven experimentally-validated framework for analysis of plastically bonded energetic materials at meso and micro scales. A unique data-mining strategy and model reduction technology based on thermodynamics and manifold learning techniques and on nonlocal dispersive reduced order model will be devised. Reduced order methods will capture the particle-matrix decohesion, matrix tearing, and nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of a binder using constitutive laws calibrated at the mesoscale from the micro-CT experiments and digital database created by computational homogenization method. Novel microtomography based experimental protocols for multiscale model validation will be developed as well. The detailed understanding gained through these co-designed simulations and experiments will have a profound impact on the development of new continuum constitutive theories and design of novel energetic materials. BENEFIT: Demolition, mining, seismic prospecting, geographical mapping, explosive welding, detonating cord (cased or bare) and prospecting rely on energetic materials, such as high explosives, for successful work. Plastically bonded explosives (PBE) consist of particulate solid high explosives embedded in a polymer matrix. As such, they rely on weak forces for adhesion between the explosive particles and binder material, which are highly influenced by the morphology of the microstructure. In order to predict the performance of these PBEs it is necessary to resolve their microstructural behavior with sufficient detail. The vast majority of multiscale constitutive models today are based on low-order statistics, e.g., volume fractions. Therefore, image-based modeling we propose offers a clear and compelling advantage. In contrast to much of the existing work on analysis of PBEs, the proposed work will capture the underlying physics at the meso and micro scales, and ultimately, will result in safer and more effective explosives.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2012

ABSTRACT: Our objective is to establish a non-destructive, three-dimensional, image-based analysis protocol for inhomogeneous materials that inherently considers the heterogeneous nature of condensed matter. The process begins with a 3-D assessment of the internal material structure performed using a high-resolution micro-CT scanner. Next, reconstruction of a statistically optimal RUC will be performed such that the statistics of the cell are essentially identical to that of the micro-CT data. Finally, a validation program utilizing micro-CT mechanical and thermal testing capabilities together with statistical validation techniques and the DVC method will be conducted. Specific tasks in Phase I include: 1. Design and evaluation of appropriate experimental and diagnostic techniques for detecting the evolution of damage in representative volumes of composite materials with focus on plastic bonded explosives; 2. Identification of shortcoming of existing 3-D imaging and multiscale modeling techniques and formulate a predictive multiscale strategy for future development including assessment of potential likelihood of success; 3. Development of a general framework for predictive multiscale technology focusing on plastic bonded explosives and fiber-reinforced concrete microstructures; and 4. Performance of preliminary verification and validation studies for reinforced elastomers that mimic plastic bonded explosive. BENEFIT: The primary objective of the proposed work is to develop a truly predictive detection and simulation strategy and software toolkit capable of analyzing and designing composite materials such as plastic bonded explosives and fiber reinforced concrete using non-destructive, image-based analysis protocol. Through the complimentary expertise and software tools developed by MDS, LLC (MDS-C) and Prof. Matous (Stat3D and Recon3D) we will deliver an integrated non-destructive design system that would benefit not only typical military applications, such variety of composite materials, energetic materials and propellants, but also variety of commercial applications such as non-invasive medical diagnosis, intelligent robotics, security screening, and on-line manufacturing process control.


Jiang T.,Multiscale Design Systems, LLC | Shao J.F.,Lille Laboratory of Mechanics
Computers and Geotechnics | Year: 2012

Micromechanical analysis based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) is presented as applied to the nonlinear behavior of porous geomaterials. In this micromechanical model, a simple classical constitutive model is employed for the solid phase, such that the distinct mechanical properties of porous geomaterials can be subsequently and satisfactorily predicted without the use of additional parameters. Furthermore, the FFT-based model automatically satisfies the periodic boundary condition of the micromechanics scheme. The efficacy of the model is shown by applications to Lixhe chalk and Vosges sandstone. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Fish J.,Columbia University | Filonova V.,Columbia University | Yuan Z.,Multiscale Design Systems, LLC
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering | Year: 2013

We present a constitutive framework for a periodic heterogeneous medium with minimal number of internal variables. The method is based on a variant of the transformation field analysis (TFA) where eigenstrains are discretized using C 0 continuous approximation in matrix dominated mode of deformation, hereafter referred to as impotent eigenstrain mode, whereas in multiphase mode of deformation, the eigenstrains are approximated using the usual C -1 approximation. The delay in the onset of inelastic response and the eigenstrain induced anisotropy in a microphase, both characteristic to averaging methods, are alleviated by introducing an eigenstrain upwinding scheme and by enhancing constitutive laws of microphases. The proposed formulation has been verified against a direct numerical simulation. The method has been found to be very accurate in predicting an overall material response at a computational cost comparable with the phenomenological modeling of a periodic heterogeneous medium. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 750.00K | Year: 2011

MDS, LLC in collaboration with Rolls-Royce, Hyper-Therm HTC, AFIT, University of Akron and Columbia University will develop a validated physics-based long-term deformation and life prediction multiscale-multiphysics design system (M2DS) for advanced ceramic matrix composites under aerospace gas turbine engine environmental conditions. Specifically we will develop deterministic and probabilistic coupled thermo-mechano-oxidation models of degradation, mechanistic thermal fatigue model and CMC optimization toolkit that will enable to find the best approaches for protecting against oxidation depending on the application conditions, such as environment, temperature, stresses and required component lives. M2DS will be validated for two material systems, Chemical Vapor Infiltrated CMC and Melt Infiltrated CMC GEN II, by utilizing AFIT/AFRL burner rig to simulate various combustion and mechanical loading conditions. BENEFIT: Currently, there are at least two CMC components planned for eventual introduction into the F136 engine. This process would be accelerated if there were validated structural assurance tools available to the design community. It would also have a huge cost benefit, not only from the improved performance, but also from the reduced development costs. The current approach to structural assurance is to build an extensive data base covering all potential failure modes, very expensive and time consuming, followed by building components and destructively testing them, costing additional resources. Validated life assurance models would remove much of this cost. It would provide the confidence necessary to accelerate the use of CMC components and to gain the experience that would promote their usage. In addition to the application to military craft, there are a significant number of static CMC components planned for civil application, such as advanced friction systems, in the relatively near future. The development of efficient computational tools for sensitivity analysis, error and uncertainty quantification, and the solution of model calibration inverse problems are critically important to design and decision under uncertainty and is therefore a fundamentally important goal across DOD Agencies and civil applications.


Fish J.,Columbia University | Jiang T.,Multiscale Design Systems, LLC | Yuan Z.,Multiscale Design Systems, LLC
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering | Year: 2012

A staggered nonlocal multiscale model for a heterogeneous medium is developed and validated. The model is termed as staggered nonlocal in the sense that it employs current information for the point under consideration and past information from its local neighborhood. For heterogeneous materials, the concept of phase nonlocality is introduced by which nonlocal phase eigenstrains are computed using different nonlocal phase kernels. The staggered nonlocal multiscale model has been found to be insensitive to finite element mesh size and load increment size. Furthermore, the computational overhead in dealing with nonlocal information is mitigated by superior convergence of the Newton method. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Fish J.,Columbia University | Filonova V.,Columbia University | Yuan Z.,Multiscale Design Systems, LLC
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2012

We present a new multiscale approach, hereafter referred to as reduced order computational continua (RC 2), that possesses computational efficiency of phenomenological models for heterogeneous media with accuracy inherent to generalized and nonlocal continua models. The RC 2 approach introduces no scale separation, makes no assumption about infinitesimality of the fine-scale structure, does not require higher order continuity, introduces no new degrees-of-freedom, is free of higher order boundary conditions and exploits a pre-computed material database to effectively solve a unit cell (representative volume) problem. It features three building blocks: (i) the nonlocal quadrature scheme, (ii) the coarse-scale stress function and (iii) the residual-free fields. The nonlocal quadrature scheme permits nonlocal interactions to extend over finite neighborhoods and thus introduces nonlocality into the two-scale integrals employed in the multiple-scale asymptotic expansion methods, or alternatively, into the Hill-Mandel macrohomogeneity condition. The coarse-scale stress function, which replaces the classical notion of coarse-scale stress being the average of fine-scale stresses, is constructed to express the governing equations in terms of coarse-scale fields only. Finally, the residual-free fields are constructed to avoid costly discrete equilibrium solution of the unit cell problems, which is known to be the bottleneck of multiscale computations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2010

To successfully address the complexities of predicting the performance of SiC/SiC material system, Dr. Fish and Dr. Yuan from MDS, LLC with expertise and record of accomplishments in developing integrated multiscale design software for composite materials have teamed up with Prof. Greg Morscher from the University of Akron (formerly at NASA Glenn), who compliments our modeling and simulation expertise with extensive experience and record of accomplishments in accelerated testing of CMC materials subjected to extreme environments and with Dr. Cook from Rolls-Royce Aerospace who will provide us access to its material database valued at $250,000. Multiscale Design Systems, LLC in collaboration with the domain expert and the Original Equipment Manufacturer will develop integrated multiscale design software for SiC/SiC materials, hereafter to be referred as MDS-C. The key functionalities of the MDS-C to be developed are: 1. Deterministic multiscale multiphysics thermo-mechano-oxidation capabilities; 2. Automated design cycle for SiC/SiC materials including integration of experiments and simulation; 3. Seamless commercial software user interface; and 4. Intuitive, workable, user-friendly GUI. While environmental degradation mechanisms for PMCs and CMCs are substantially different, portions of the software architecture and graphical user interface developed under Phase I award (topic AF083-074) for HTPMC materials will be leveraged for the current effort. BENEFIT: The primary role envisaged for non-oxide ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs), such as those based on the SiC/SiC system, is in the hottest sections of advanced aircraft engines and land turbines, such as combustor liners and jet-exhaust vanes. By obtaining a better understanding of the oxidation kinetics of carbon fibers in a ceramic matrix, the best approaches for protecting against oxidation will be determined depending on the application conditions, such as environment, temperature, stresses and required component lives. Such a predictive capability will be developed and housed in the Multiscale Design System product line (MDS-C) and will be of immediate use where conventional design procedures for SiC/SiC components lacked predictability. The MDS-C will provide not only a customizable environment for research into CMC materials, but also an integrated engineering design platform for high temperature components. The thermo-mechano-oxidation capabilities will become part of our MDS-C product line and will continue to be enhanced to meet more general needs. The two collaborators (Dr. Greg Morscher formerly at NASA Glenn and Dr. Cook from Rolls-Royce Aerospace) are indicative that the proposed life prediction methodology and advanced design tools for CMC components will be readily marketable to commercial aircraft.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 750.00K | Year: 2010

Multiscale Design Systems, LLC, in collaboration with domain experts in modeling (Rajagopal), simulation (Estep), experimentation (Ruggles-Wrenn) and in partnership with GE Aviation, Boeing and Renegade Materials, will develop integrated multiscale design software for high temperature polymer matrix component (HTPMC) materials, hereafter referred to as MDS-C. The key functionalities of the MDS-C to be developed are: 1. Deterministic and probabilistic multiscale multiphysics hygro-thermo-mechano-oxidation-fatigue capabilities; 2. Automated design cycle for HTPMC materials including integration of experiments and simulation; 3. Seamless commercial software interface and an intuitive, workable, user-friendly GUI. Phase II demonstrations will compare the MDS-C predictions with the experimental data of PMR-15 and FreeForm 14 based components subjected to various individual and combined environmental conditions, such as hygro-thermo-mechano-oxidation-fatigue environments. For model calibration and validation we will have an access to the NCAMP MVK-14 FreeForm™ Polyimide Composite test database. BENEFIT: Polymer matrix composites used in high-temperature applications, such as turbine engines and engine exhaust washed structures, are known to have limited life due to oxidative, hygrothermal and thermal fatigue degradation. For example, high temperature, pressure, and the presence of moisture limit the life of some polyimide composite components to only 100 h of service for worst-case operational conditions. Therefore, a reliable multiphysics-multiscale simulation model is critical to yield an understanding of the mechanisms behind observed degradation phenomena, help to design accelerated tests and serve as a basis for truly predictive capability. Such a predictive capability will be developed and housed in the Multiscale Design System product line (MDS-C) and will be of immediate use in situations where conventional design procedures for HTPMC component lacked predictability. The MDS-C will provide not only a customizable environment for research into HTPMC materials, but also an integrated engineering design platform for high temperature components. The hygro-thermo-mechano-oxidation-fatigue modeling capabilities will become part of our MDS-C product line and will continue to be evolved to meet more general needs. The three partnerships (GE Aviation, Boeing and Renegade Materials) already established and strong endorsement from six other companies (Northrop-Grumman, Lockheed-Martin, Rolls-Royce Aerospace and Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) consisting of GM, Ford and Chrysler) are indicative that the proposed life prediction methodology and advanced design tools for HTPMC components will be readily marketable to commercial aircraft and automotive industries.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 70.00K | Year: 2010

While single scale models (either discrete or continuum) provide useful insight into the physics of concrete fragmentation process they become intractable for practical structural application in particular for Very High Strength Concrete (VHSC) having small aggregate size and Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) where resolving the details of fiber-concrete interactions is critical to assess the structural performance under extreme conditions. To successfully address the complexities of predicting the performance of VHSC and FRC, Prof. Fish and Dr. Yuan from MDS, LLC with expertise and record of accomplishments in developing integrated multiscale design software for heterogeneous material systems have teamed up with Prof. JS Chen from UCLA who has extensive experience in fracture and fragmentation of concrete structures subjected to blast and fragment loading. In Phase I, we will: 1. Assess existing computational models including LDPM, RKPM and reduced order homogenization models for simulating blast and fragmentation loading on VHSC, FRC, and other types of special concrete materials and cementitious composites; 2. Identify shortcoming of existing methodologies and formulate predictive multiscale strategy for future development based on combination of LDPM and RKPM in which LDPM provides the lower order approximation of cement-aggregate behavior, while RKPM is introduced as an enrichment of LDPM to account for the effects of small aggregate and fiber reinforcement. 3. Perform preliminary verification and validation studies that compare the feasibility of the proposed multiscale methodology including: (a) calibration against test data in collaboration with DTRA and ERDC and (b) initial demonstrations on out-of-plane compression tests and low velocity impact tests. In Phase II, the LDPM-RKPM approach will be combined with the computational continua methodology to account for dynamic effects in RVE problem and the eigendeformation approach to maximize computational efficiency by constructing residual free fields.

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