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Li J.,Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center | Li J.,University of Leeds | Cubbon R.M.,Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center | Wilson L.A.,Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center | And 23 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2011

Rationale: Orai1 and the associated calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channel were discovered in the immune system. Existence also in endothelial cells has been suggested, but the relevance to endothelial biology is mostly unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of Orai1 and CRAC channels to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endothelial tube formation. Methods and Results: In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, Orai1 disruption by short-interfering RNA or dominant-negative mutant Orai1 inhibited calcium release-activated (store-operated) calcium entry, VEGF-evoked calcium entry, cell migration, and in vitro tube formation. Expression of exogenous wild-type Orai1 rescued the tube formation. VEGF receptor-2 and Orai1 partially colocalized. Orai1 disruption also inhibited calcium entry and tube formation in endothelial progenitor cells from human blood. A known blocker of the immune cell CRAC channel (3-fluoropyridine-4-carboxylic acid (2′,5′- dimethoxybiphenyl-4-yl)amide) was a strong blocker of store-operated calcium entry in endothelial cells and inhibited calcium entry evoked by VEGF in 3 types of human endothelial cell. The compound lacked effect on VEGF-evoked calcium-release, STIM1 clustering, and 2 types of transient receptor potential channels, TRPC6 and TRPV4. Without effect on cell viability, the compound inhibited human endothelial cell migration and tube formation in vitro and suppressed angiogenesis in vivo in the chick chorioallantoic membrane. The compound showed 100-fold greater potency for endothelial compared with immune cell calcium entry. Conclusions: The data suggest positive roles for Orai1 and CRAC channels in VEGF-evoked calcium entry and new opportunity for chemical modulation of angiogenesis. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.

Wolny M.,Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center | Colegrave M.,Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center | Colman L.,Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center | Colman L.,Karus Therapeutics | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013

It is unclear why mutations in the filament-forming tail of myosin heavy chain (MHC) cause hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy as these mutations should not directly affect contraction. To investigate this, we first investigated the impact of five hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-causing (N1327K, E1356K, R1382W, E1555K, and R1768K) and one dilated cardiomyopathy-causing (R1500W) tail mutations on their ability to incorporate into muscle sarcomeres in vivo. We used adenoviral delivery to express full-length wild type or mutant enhanced GFP-MHC in isolated adult cardiomyocytes. Three mutations (N1327K, E1356K, and E1555K) reduced enhanced GFP-MHC incorporation into muscle sarcomeres, whereas the remainder had no effect. No mutations significantly affected contraction. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching showed that fluorescence recovery for the mutation that incorporated least well (N1327K) was significantly faster than that of WT with half-times of 25.1± 1.8 and 32.2± 2.5 min (mean± S.E.), respectively. Next, we determined the effects of each mutation on the helical properties of wild type and seven mutant peptides (7,11, or 15 heptads long) from the myosin tail by circular dichroism. R1382W and E1768K slightly increased the α-helical nature of peptides. The remaining mutations reduced α-helical content, with N1327K showing the greatest reduction. Only peptides containing residues 1301-1329 were highly α-helical suggesting that this region helps in initiation of coiled coil. These results suggest that small effects of mutations on helicity translate into a reduced ability to incorporate into sarcomeres, which may elicit compensatory hypertrophy. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Dedman A.M.,Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center | Dedman A.M.,University of Leeds | Majeed Y.,Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center | Majeed Y.,University of Leeds | And 14 more authors.
BMC Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

Background: Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 1 (TRPC1) is a widely-expressed mammalian cationic channel with functional effects that include stimulation of cardiovascular remodelling. The initial aim of this study was to investigate variation in TRPC1-encoding gene transcripts.Results: Extensive TRPC1 transcript alternative splicing was observed, with exons 2, 3 and 5-9 frequently omitted, leading to variants containing premature termination codons. Consistent with the predicted sensitivity of such variants to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) the variants were increased by cycloheximide. However it was notable that control of the variants by NMD was prominent in human embryonic kidney 293 cells but not human vascular smooth muscle cells. The cellular difference was attributed in part to a critical protein in NMD, up-frameshift-1 (UPF1), which was found to have low abundance in the vascular cells. Rescue of UPF1 by expression of exogenous UPF1 was found to suppress vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.Conclusions: The data suggest: (i) extensive NMD-sensitive transcripts of TRPC1; (ii) inefficient clearance of aberrant transcripts and enhanced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in part because of low UPF1 expression. © 2011 Dedman et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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