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Wright D.M.,Multi Imaging Center | Saracevic Z.S.,University of Cambridge | Kyle N.H.,Cambridge Biostability Ltd. | Motskin M.,Multi Imaging Center | Skepper J.N.,Multi Imaging Center
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine | Year: 2010

The ratio of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles (NP) to trehalose in composite microparticle (MP) vaccine vehicles by determining inter-nanoparticle space potentially influences antigen release. Mercury porosimetry and gas adsorption analysis have been used quantify this space. Larger pores are present in MPs spray dried solely from nanoparticle gel compared with MPs spray dried from nanoparticle colloid which have less inter-nanoparticle volume. This is attributed to tighter nanoparticle packing caused by citrate modification of their surface charge. The pore size distributions (PSD) for MP where the trehalose has been eliminated by combustion generally broaden and shifts to higher values with increasing initial trehalose content. Modal pore size, for gel derived MPs is comparable to modal NP width below 30% initial trehalose content and approximates to modal NP length (∼50 nm) at 60% initial trehalose content. For colloidally derived MPs this never exceeds the modal NP width. Pore-sizes are comparable, to surface inter-nanoparticle spacings observed by SEM. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Shroff R.C.,Nephrology Unit | Shroff R.C.,University College London | Shroff R.C.,Kings College London | McNair R.,Addenbrookes Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2010

In chronic kidney disease (CKD) vascular calcification occurs in response to deranged calcium and phosphate metabolism and is characterized by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) damage and attrition. To gain mechanistic insights into how calcium and phosphate mediate calcification, we used an ex vivo model of human vessel culture. Vessel rings from healthy control subjects did not accumulate calcium with long-term exposure to elevated calcium and/or phosphate. In contrast, vessel rings from patients with CKD accumulated calcium; calcium induced calcification more potently than phosphate (at equivalent calcium-phosphate product). Elevated phosphate increased alkaline phosphatase activity in CKD vessels, but inhibition of alkaline phosphatase with levamisole did not block calcification. Instead, calcification in CKD vessels most strongly associated with VSMC death resulting from calcium- and phosphate-induced apoptosis; treatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD ameliorated calcification. Calcification in CKD vessels was also associated with increased deposition of VSMC-derived vesicles. Electron microscopy confirmed increased deposition of vesicles containing crystalline calcium and phosphate in the extracellular matrix of dialysis vessel rings. In contrast, vesicle deposition and calcification did not occur in normal vessel rings, but we observed extensive intracellular mitochondrial damage. Taken together, these data provide evidence that VSMCs undergo adaptive changes, including vesicle release, in response to dysregulated mineral metabolism. These adaptations may initially promote survival but ultimately culminate in VSMC apoptosis and overt calcification, especially with continued exposure to elevated calcium. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Nephrology. Source


Kapustin A.N.,Kings College London | Davies J.D.,Addenbrookes Hospital | Reynolds J.L.,Addenbrookes Hospital | McNair R.,Addenbrookes Hospital | And 7 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2011

Rationale: Matrix vesicles (MVs) are specialized structures that initiate mineral nucleation during physiological skeletogenesis. Similar vesicular structures are deposited at sites of pathological vascular calcification, and studies in vitro have shown that elevated levels of extracellular calcium (Ca) can induce mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-derived MVs. Objectives: To determine the mechanisms that promote mineralization of VSMC-MVs in response to calcium stress. Methods and Results: Transmission electron microscopy showed that both nonmineralized and mineralized MVs were abundantly deposited in the extracellular matrix at sites of calcification. Using cultured human VSMCs, we showed that MV mineralization is calcium dependent and can be inhibited by BAPTA-AM. MVs released by VSMCs in response to extracellular calcium lacked the key mineralization inhibitor matrix Gla protein and showed enhanced matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Proteomics revealed that VSMC-MVs share similarities with chondrocyte-derived MVs, including enrichment of the calcium-binding proteins annexins (Anx) A2, A5, and A6. Biotin cross-linking and flow cytometry demonstrated that in response to calcium, AnxA6 shuttled to the plasma membrane and was selectively enriched in MVs. AnxA6 was also abundant at sites of vascular calcification in vivo, and small interfering RNA depletion of AnxA6 reduced VSMC mineralization. Flow cytometry showed that in addition to AnxA6, calcium induced phosphatidylserine exposure on the MV surface, thus providing hydroxyapatite nucleation sites. Conclusions: In contrast to the coordinated signaling response observed in chondrocyte MVs, mineralization of VSMC-MVs is a pathological response to disturbed intracellular calcium homeostasis that leads to inhibitor depletion and the formation of AnxA6/phosphatidylserine nucleation complexes. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


Kapustin A.N.,Kings College London | Chatrou M.L.L.,Maastricht University | Drozdov I.,Kings College London | Zheng Y.,University College London | And 16 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2015

Rationale: Matrix vesicles (MVs), secreted by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), form the first nidus for mineralization and fetuin-A, a potent circulating inhibitor of calcification, is specifically loaded into MVs. However, the processes of fetuin-A intracellular trafficking and MV biogenesis are poorly understood. Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the regulation, and role, of MV biogenesis in VSMC calcification. Methods and Results: Alexa488-labeled fetuin-A was internalized by human VSMCs, trafficked via the endosomal system, and exocytosed from multivesicular bodies via exosome release. VSMC-derived exosomes were enriched with the tetraspanins CD9, CD63, and CD81, and their release was regulated by sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3. Comparative proteomics showed that VSMC-derived exosomes were compositionally similar to exosomes from other cell sources but also shared components with osteoblast-derived MVs including calcium-binding and extracellular matrix proteins. Elevated extracellular calcium was found to induce sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3 expression and the secretion of calcifying exosomes from VSMCs in vitro, and chemical inhibition of sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3 prevented VSMC calcification. In vivo, multivesicular bodies containing exosomes were observed in vessels from chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis, and CD63 was found to colocalize with calcification. Importantly, factors such as tumor necrosis factor-α and platelet derived growth factor-BB were also found to increase exosome production, leading to increased calcification of VSMCs in response to calcifying conditions. Conclusions: This study identifies MVs as exosomes and shows that factors that can increase exosome release can promote vascular calcification in response to environmental calcium stress. Modulation of the exosome release pathway may be as a novel therapeutic target for prevention. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

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