Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST.2008.1.1.3. | Award Amount: 5.10M | Year: 2009
Noise pollution is a major environmental problem within the EU. The social costs of traffic noise have been estimated to 0.4% of total GDP. Road traffic is the dominant source, and also rail traffic noise is significant. At the same time, road and rail traffic are expected to steadily increase, and the source strength is not expected to significantly decrease within the near future. To reduce the outdoor traffic noise to a sufficiently low level for a good acoustic environment is a major challenge of high need. Here, we will focus on noise propagation abatement for the outdoor environment. Following the EU Directive on environmental noise, a series of major action have been taken in noise abatement, but the sustainability has rarely been paid attention. The main idea of our project is to optimize the use of green areas, green surfaces and other natural elements in combination with artificial elements in urban and rural environments for reducing the noise impact of road and rail traffic. The project offers a variety of powerful abatement strategies that will make a cost effective improvement by its combination of approaches concerning: ground and road surface treatments; trees, forests and tall vegetation; greening of buildings and other surfaces; and innovative barriers. The noise impact will be assessed in terms of sound levels (including spectra and time patterns) as well as perceived environment (including annoyance, well-being and other health related aspects). The main objectives of the project are: to show by full scale evaluation that the proposed abatement methods work; to deliver noise prediction methods applicable to the proposed abatements, which can also be used in noise mapping software; to deliver assessment methods for the perceived noise environment; to deliver a good practice guide for the end-users; and to show the cost benefit, including the positive effect on urban air quality and CO2 neutrality, of the resulting noise abatement methods.
Zimmermann B.,Muller BBM GmbH
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2015
The assessment of the measurement uncertainty plays an important role when the validity of emission measurements results is evaluated. In the standard VDI 3884 Part 1, for olfactory measurements a procedure is described how the measurement uncertainty can be determined for n-butanol based on the laboratory's current daily standard deviation. Within the scope of an emission measurement series at an area source, we even exceeded the requirements of VDI 3884 Part 1 and tried to assess effects of measurement uncertainty in the course of the evaluation and in connection with sampling or by assessing the total measurement uncertainty for the evaluation. Concerning the expanded measurement uncertainty resulting from the olfactometrical analysis, it can be assumed that the uncertainty can be determined on a daily basis and typical of the respective laboratory, based on the repeatability determined by reference odorants. By choosing a narrowing on the standard requirements beyond selection of panel members, the measurement uncertainty calculated according to VDI 3884 Part 1 can even be reduced to a value below 1 dBod. It is, however doubtful whether such low measurement uncertainties for olfactometry can include the measurement uncertainties for sampling which is expected indirect in the VDI 3884 Part 1 on the basis of studies. Concerning the contributions to measurement uncertainty due to sampling, the results of the present evaluation indicate that at least for complex source configurations and probably also exhaust gas boundary conditions, the type of sampling and the applied measurement equipment can contribute significantly to an expanded measurement uncertainty.
Informative power of determined ambient air characteristics of grid measurements - Measurement uncertainty, range of fluctuation and correction factor [Aussagesicherheit von immissionskenngrößen aus rastermessungen: Messunsicherheit, schwankungsbreite und korrekturfaktor]
Zimmermann B.,Muller BBM GmbH
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2012
In case of odour impact measurements by means of the grid method, the measurement result is, due to the statistical survey method, afflicted with a measurement uncertainty depending on the number of measurements and accuracy of the assessor. According to the guideline on odour in ambient air (GOAA) a correction factor is applied which depends on the total scale of survey and the area classification in order to take into account the measurement uncertainty and the associated informative powers concerning the evaluated measurement results. In the context of the development of a European standard for determination odour impact by field inspections the definition of a fluctuation range is provided for grid measurements, in order to be able to draw conclusions on the certainty of the evaluated results. On the basis of the results of three field inspections it is examined in which way the application of the fluctuation range behaves in relation to the procedural measurement uncertainty or to the application of the correction factor. By means of the conducted evaluations, no correlation could be ascertained between the statements concerning the uncertainty of grid measurements by determination of the fluctuation ranges and of the standard deviations of the single measurement values, and the application of the correction factor given in GOAA. The intended determination of the fluctuation range, which should provide statements about the certainty of the ascertained results without additional measurement requirements, does not meet this claim according to the present investigation.
Scheuren J.,Muller BBM GmbH
40th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2011, INTER-NOISE 2011 | Year: 2011
The standardization of physical and psychoacoustic methods to evaluate and determine characteristic parameters of sounds is an important and indispensable prerequisite to compare and uniquely assess sounds and to guarantee the definition and, above all, the compliance of acoustic conditions. However, being subject to continuous research and development, such standardization is exposed to contrary fields of interest: a dynamical request to continuously follow any improvement or adaptation to new procedural insight and a static demand for continuity to allow for long-term comparisons of sound characteristics. While the first tendency is an inherent part of any scientific research and development, the latter is a necessary consequence of the many needs of practical acoustic work and development. To effectively compromise between these requirements is one of the basic challenges to any sustainable standardization work Starting from examples which illustrate the benefits of each of these requirements, the consequences of giving them up will be estimated and assessed. It turns out that long-term comparability of results is a high value requiring careful handling of standards to ensure the long-term acceptance of psychoacoustic metrics. The importance of such care will be verified and outlined with respect to recent work in complementing and revising proven loudness standards (ISO 532 and DIN 45631/A1).
Scheuren J.,Muller BBM GmbH
INTERNOISE 2014 - 43rd International Congress on Noise Control Engineering: Improving the World Through Noise Control | Year: 2014
By its very nature, standardization claims to set unique rules and procedures, thus aiming unique, i.e. comparable and reproducible results. Also, to be effective, the standard and the underlying approach need to be broadly accepted by the addressed user community. To come up with such general agreement it is typically required that a "best" approach, covering all relevant applications of interest, has been established. If this does not apply, the existence of alternative standards in parallel may offer a way out. The revision process of ISO 532 "Acoustics - Methods for calculating loudness" showed that it was not possible to prove and agree on a single "best" approach. Acknowledging the legitimate demand of applicative continuity, the member bodies of ISO TC 43 "Acoustics" therefore decided to maintain the given situation by specifying two alternative approaches again. With reference to existing national standards (DIN 45631/A1 and ANSI S3.4), these are the Zwicker approach in an extended version for time-varying sounds and the Moore/Glasberg approach for stationary sounds at first. Based on a review of the revision process and a summarizing justification of the resulting decision, the discussion of practical and theoretical consequences of the renewed dualism will outline the chances for broader applications of loudness calculations. However, this dualism also establishes the commitment to thoroughly identify and seize the chance for final unification of the standard.
Impact assessment of water vapour emitted by low wet cooling towers and other industrial sources - Questions, modeling methods and appraisal criteria [Auswirkungsbetrachtung zu den wasserdampfemissionen niedriger kühltürme und anderer industrieller emittenten - Fragestellungen, modellansätze und beurteilungskriterien]
Kortner M.,Muller BBM GmbH
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2010
In order to assess the environmental impact of projected industrial plants attended by relevant water vapour emissions, a growing interest occurs to estimate the additional loads of water vapour especially in the surface layer as well as the frequency and extent of possible visible plumes in the atmospheric boundary layer. In this article typical questions with regard to the microclimatic impact of industrial wet cooling systems as well as possible appraisal criteria are described. Furthermore, modeling methods for the quantification of additional loads of water vapour and resulting visible plumes in the relevant air layers based on a Lagrangian dispersion model are presented.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 3.75M | Year: 2011
The FlowAirS proposal is collaborative training research network. It will be focused on the generation, propagation and reduction of sound in flow ducts for transport, buildings and power generation. There is a real need for a European-wide training in this field: the FlowAirS general objective is to train by research a new generation of young researchers with multi-disciplinary skills and able to make research careers more attractive and will enhance their own career opportunities. To achieve this goal, a partnership has been established between seven academic research centres of excellence, five industrial world leaders in their respective sectors, one innovative SME and four private research institutes or consulting engineering company: the collaboration between academia and private sector representatives is a key element of the FlowAirs training research programme. The work programme is divided in 8 Work Packages (WPs). The first 2 WPs deal with sound sources mechanisms. WP3 will be focused on innovative solutions for noise reduction. Three other WPs are concerned by the different numerical procedures and system identifications that are used in flow duct systems. One of the WP deals with the dissemination of the results to European citizens, researchers and industries. The last WP is on management and training. Training activities will be organized along three main axes: 1) training through research; 2)formal training giving all the important skills needed by researchers in the field of sound in flow duct systems and 3)training through practical experience on industrial sites. By participating to FlowAirS young researchers will gain a multi-disciplinary and appropriate background in generation, propagation andreduction of sound in flow ducts. The FlowAirS project will bring to European citizens innovative solutions to reduce the noise pollutionwhich is one of the key solutions for enhancing people quality of life and health in the European Union.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN | Award Amount: 3.81M | Year: 2013
The BATWOMAN ITN aims at structuring research training in basic and advanced acoustics and setting up a work program on methodologies for acoustics for skills development in a highly diverse research field offering multiple career options. The consortium consists of renowned public and private partners from musical acoustics, room acoustics and automotive acoustics who will merge their existing knowledge, extend it jointly and complement it with insights of recent sound perception research. This will exploit existing synergies and overcome obvious fragmentation in research, methodology and basic as well as advanced acoustics training. Providing interdisciplinary training and joining or exchanging methodology in research, is expected to have a strong impact on the skills of trained researchers as far as sound design capabilities, modelling accuracy, efficiency and applicable frequency range is concerned. Adding the understanding of human auditory perception will help to tackle the hard problem of sound quality parameters and to better understand stimulating effects on well-being and cognition of people exposed to sound, but also harmful effects, like annoyance or even deteriorating cognitive performance. The ITN will provide interdisciplinary and intersectoral research training for excellence. It will structure existing PhD-level training in acoustics setting up European curricula with compatible and recognised courses offered by Universities and private enterprises. Simultaneously it will push the state of the art in vibro-acoustic modelling and in interdisciplinary design optimisation by initiating a joint research effort increasing critical mass. The complementary structure of the network will make it not to break apart after the ITN project period. It is rather expected that the methodologies used to analyse, design and optimise transport vehicles, rooms and musical instruments will grow together and will be further developed in an interdisciplinary joint effort.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-ITN | Award Amount: 3.80M | Year: 2012
Traffic noise pollution in urban areas is a major environmental problem within the European Union. Creating an acceptable acoustic outdoor environment is a big challenge of high need. Creating as well as preserving environments, which are supportive for health and well-being in a sustainable manner is an even bigger but unavoidable task. In order to succeed, specialists are required with a broad research competence covering areas such as acoustic prediction methods, noise control and soundscaping, but also aspects of city and traffic planning. However, specialists equipped with such a competence spectrum are hardly found. Therefore, the goal of SONORUS is to close this gap and bring together universities, enterprises and public organizations that aim to offer training to ESRs in an arena of trans-disciplinary research. The training is designed around real-life urban test sites that are characterized by a poor acoustic environment due to noise from road, rail or air traffic. These test sites are provided by three major European cities (Berlin, Rome and Antwerp). To these test sites, the ESRs will apply their knowledge and skills gained from individual acoustics related research projects, in-depth courses on acoustics as well as on different aspects of spatial planning. The ESRs will, in teams, design a long-term plan for the development of the acoustic environment on the test sites. This activity will also give the opportunity to train complementary skills such as communication and outreach skills. From SONORUS a new generation of researchers will emerge with the profile adapted to the supra-disciplinary approach needed to reverse the negative trend of a deteriorating acoustic outdoor environment in urban areas. SONORUS has been designed with the intension that these researchers will be best prepared to further develop and above all to apply the new integrated concepts into practical urban planning processes and their effective coordination.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: Shift2Rail-RIA | Phase: S2R-OC-CCA-03-2015 | Award Amount: 1.27M | Year: 2016
DESTINATE aims to develop tools and methodologies for railway noise simulation and cost-benefit analysis of mitigation actions of interior and exterior noise. For accurate noise prediction it is essential to characterize the structure-borne and airborne sound sources accurately in order to create valid input for sound prediction simulation models. The calculated interior and exterior noise can be auralised and visualised in a studio to evaluate the sound quality and sound comfort of potential mitigation measures in the vehicle design process. Auralisation and visualisation of noise can be used to assess the annoyance reduction of a given measure. Thus human perception is adequately taken into account. For decision-making the cost of different design options is a very important parameter. DESTINATE aims to further develop cost effectiveness prediction and thus create the foundation for powerful tools to support decision-making on noise & vibration mitigation measures.