Samarinda, Indonesia
Samarinda, Indonesia

The Universitas Mulawarman is a public university located in Samarinda, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. It was established on September 27, 1962, making it the oldest tertiary education institution in East Kalimantan. With more than 35,000 students, Universitas Mulawarman is the university with the most students in Kalimantan. Its main campus is in Gunung Kelua, while other campuses are in Pahlawan Road, Banggeris Street and Flores Street of Samarinda.Universitas Mulawarman is striving to be the world-class university which is able to play a role in development through education, research and community service which relies on natural resources, especially the tropical rainforest and its environment. Wikipedia.

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Rayadin Y.,Ecology and Conservation Center for Tropical Studies | Rayadin Y.,Mulawarman University | Spehar S.N.,University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2015

Body mass is a key determinant of a species' ecology, including locomotion, foraging strategies, and energetics. Accurate information on the body mass of wild primates allows us to develop explanatory models for relationships among body size, ecology, and behavior and is crucial for reconstructing the ecology and behavior of fossil primates and hominins. Information on body mass can also provide indirect information on health and can be an important tool for conservation in the context of increasingly widespread habitat disturbance. This study reports body mass data recorded for wild Northeast Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) during relocation efforts in forestry and oil palm plantations in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The average mass of flanged adult males (n = 12, 74 ± 9.78 kg) and adult females (n = 7, 35.29 ± 7.32 kg) from this study were 13.6% and 9% lower, respectively, than the only other published wild Bornean orangutan body mass measurements, but the range of weights for both males and females was larger for this study. This pattern could be due to sampling error, data collection differences, or the influence of habitat disturbance, specifically a lack of access to resources, on individual health. When necessary relocations present the opportunity, we encourage researchers to prioritize the collection of body size data for the purposes of understanding ecology but also as an indirect means of monitoring population viability. As primate habitat becomes increasingly fragmented and altered by humans such data will become critical to our ability to make informed conservation decisions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Meijaard E.,People and Nature Consulting International | Meijaard E.,Australian National University | Albar G.,Societe dOrnithologie de Polyne sie | Nardiyono,The Nature Conservancy Indonesia Program | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Ecological studies of orangutans have almost exclusively focused on populations living in primary or selectively logged rainforest. The response of orangutans to severe habitat degradation remains therefore poorly understood. Most experts assume that viable populations cannot survive outside undisturbed or slightly disturbed forests. This is a concern because nearly 75% of all orangutans live outside protected areas, where degradation of natural forests is likely to occur, or where these are replaced by planted forests. To improve our understanding of orangutan survival in highly altered forest habitats, we conducted population density surveys in two pulp and paper plantation concessions in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. These plantations consist of areas planted with fast-growing exotics intermixed with stands of highly degraded forests and scrublands. Our rapid surveys indicate unexpectedly high orangutan densities in plantation landscapes dominated by Acacia spp., although it remains unclear whether such landscapes can maintain long-term viable populations. These findings indicate the need to better understand how plantation-dominated landscapes can potentially be incorporated into orangutan conservation planning. Although we emphasize that plantations have less value for overall biodiversity conservation than natural forests, they could potentially boost the chances of orangutan survival. Our findings are based on a relatively short study and various methodological issues need to be addressed, but they suggest that orangutans may be more ecologically flexible than previously thought. © 2010 Meijaard et al.

Arung E.T.,Kyushu University | Arung E.T.,Mulawarman University | Furuta S.,Fukuoka Women's University | Ishikawa H.,Fukuoka Women's University | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

In an effort to find a new whitening agent, we have found that the methanol extract of the dried skin of Allium cepa showed inhibition of melanin formation. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of quercetin (1) and quercetin 4'-O-β-glucoside (3) from A. cepa as the inhibitors of melanin formation in B16 melanoma cells with IC50 values of 26.5 and 131μM, respectively. In addition, we evaluated the effect of some quercetin derivatives, such as isoquercitrin (2), quercetin 3,4'-O-diglucoside (4), rutin (5) and hyperin (6) on B16 melanoma cells. These quercetin derivatives did not show any inhibition of melanin formation. Furthermore, the ORAC values of compounds 1-6 were 7.64, 8.65, 4.82, 4.32, 8.17 and 9.34μmol trolox equivalents/μmol, respectively. Dried skin of red onion showed inhibitory activity against melanin formation in B16 melanoma cells, as well as antioxidant properties. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Yonekura Y.,Kyoto University | Ohta S.,Kyoto University | Kiyono Y.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Aksa D.,Mulawarman University | And 3 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2012

Southeast Asia has the highest rate of tropical rainforest deforestation worldwide, and large deforested areas have been replaced ultimately by the highly invasive grass Imperata cylindrica. However, information on the carbon (C) budget with such land transition is very scarce. This study presents the dynamics of soil C following rainforest destruction and the subsequent establishment of Imperata grassland in the lowland humid tropics of Indonesian Borneo using stable C isotopes. To evaluate the relative contribution of organic matter originating from primary forest (C 3) and grasslands (C 4), we compared soil C stock and natural 13C abundance from six sites to a depth of 100 cm using samples with a wide range of soil textures. Twelve years after the first soil sampling in the grasslands, we re-sampled to examine temporal changes in soil organic matter. The grassland topsoil (0-5 cm) is an active layer with rapid decomposition and incorporation of fresh C (mean residence time: 7.5 year) and a substantial proportion of the stable C pool (37%). The decline in forest-derived C was slight, even at 5-10 cm depths, and subsoil (20-100 cm depth) forest-derived C did not change along the forest-to-grassland chronosequence. Grassland-derived C stock increased significantly in the subsurface and subsoils (5-100 cm). Simulation indicated that total soil C stock (0-100 cm) increased by 18.6 Mg ha -1 from initial primary forest (58.0 Mg ha -1) to a new equilibrium state of the grassland (76.6 Mg ha -1) after 30-50 years of grassland establishment. This research indicates that the soil did not function as a CO 2 source when the deforested area was replaced by Imperata grassland on the Ultisols of the Asian humid tropics. Instead, increased soil C stocks offset CO 2 emissions, with the C offset accounting for 6.6-7.4% of the loss of biomass C stock. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Loken B.,Simon Fraser University | Spehar S.,Integrated Conservation | Spehar S.,University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh | Rayadin Y.,Mulawarman University
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2013

Aside from anecdotal evidence, terrestriality in orangutans (Pongo spp.) has not been quantified or subject to careful study and important questions remain about the extent and contexts of terrestrial behavior. Understanding the factors that influence orangutan terrestriality also has significant implications for their conservation. Here we report on a camera trapping study of terrestrial behavior in the northeastern Bornean orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus morio, in Wehea Forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. We used 78 non-baited camera traps set in 43 stations along roads, trails, and at mineral licks (sepans) to document the frequency of orangutan terrestriality. Habitat assessments were used to determine how terrestrial behavior was influenced by canopy connectivity. We compared camera trapping results for P. p. morio to those for a known terrestrial primate (Macaca nemestrina), and another largely arboreal species (Presbytis rubicunda) to assess the relative frequency of terrestrial behavior by P. p. morio. A combined sampling effort of 14,446 trap days resulted in photographs of at least 15 individual orangutans, with females being the most frequently recorded age sex class (N=32) followed by flanged males (N=26 records). P. p. morio represented the second most recorded primate (N=110 total records) of seven primate species recorded. Capture scores for M. nemestrina (0.270) and P. p. morio (0.237) were similar and almost seven times higher than for the next most recorded primate, P. rubicunda (0.035). In addition, our results indicate that for orangutans, there was no clear relationship between canopy connectivity and terrestriality. Overall, our data suggest that terrestriality is relatively common for the orangutans in Wehea Forest and represents a regular strategy employed by individuals of all age-sex classes. As Borneo and Sumatra increasingly become characterized by mixed-use habitats, understanding the ecological requirements and resilience in orangutans is necessary for designing optimal conservation strategies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Hadibarata T.,Ehime University | Hadibarata T.,Mulawarman University | Tachibana S.,Ehime University
Journal of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2010

Polyporus sp. S133, a fungus collected from contaminated soil, was used to degrade phenanthrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, in a mineral salt broth liquid culture. A maximal degradation rate (92%) was obtained when Polyporus sp. S133 was cultured for 30 days with agitation at 120 r/min, as compared to 44% degradation in non-agitated cultures. Furthermore, the degradation was affected by the addition of surfactants. Tween 80 was the most suitable surfactant for the degradation of phenanthrene by Polyporus sp. S133. The degradation rate increased as the amount of Tween 80 added increased. The rate in agitated cultures was about 2 times that in non-agitated cultures. The mechanism of degradation was determined through the identification of metabolites; 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, 2,2′-diphenic acid, phthalic acid, and protocatechuic acid. Several enzymes (manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase) produced by Polyporus sp. S133 were detected during the incubation. The highest level of activity was shown by 1,2-dioxygenase (187.4 U/L) after 20 days of culture. © 2010 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Zuraida I.,Mulawarman University | Sukarno,Bogor Agricultural University | Budijanto S.,Bogor Agricultural University
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2011

Liquid smoking emerges as a potential substitution for traditional smoking method in preserving proteinaceous foods. The study is aimed to investigate antibacterial activity of coconut shell liquid smoke (CSLS) and potential application of CS-LS on fish ball preservation. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of CS-LS is determined with broth dilution method against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. CS-LS was able to inhibit microbial activities of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, giving 0.22% and 0.40% MIC of CS-LS, respectively. Shelf life of fish ball was increased from 16 to 32 hours, determined at 27-28oC, by applying 2.5% CS-LS. At the same concentration of CS-LS, fish ball can achieve 20 days of storage at 4±1oC, giving acceptable TPC count (1.80 log CFU/g) while maintaining stability of pH at 5.7-5.8 and slight moisture content reduction (p<0.05). The results indicated that CS-LS was an effective preservative agent for fish ball. © 2008 IFRJ.

Rustam,Mulawarman University
Raffles Bulletin of Zoology | Year: 2016

Little is known about the ecology of the rare marbled cat Pardofelis marmorata on Borneo. In addition, the little information that is available on the species often comes from incidental sightings. Here we use the MaxEnt algorithm to produce a habitat suitability map for this species based on a compilation of existing data. We collected 105 marbled cat occurrence records for Borneo, of which 27 (Balanced Model) or 69 (Spatial Filtering Model) were used to estimate potential habitat suitability. The resulting relative habitat suitability map showed key conservation areas in Borneo. According to these results it appears that the most suitable habitats for marbled cat are lowland forests, but these forests are most threatened by deforestation and other anthropogenic activities. It is imperative to develop appropriate conservation strategies for the marbled cat on Borneo, including long-term research and monitoring, reduction of human disturbances in lowland forests, increased data-sharing and research networking, and stakeholder involvement for conservation planning and activities. © 2016 National University of Singapore.

Hindryawati N.,Universiti Malaysia Pahang | Hindryawati N.,Mulawarman University | Maniam G.P.,Universiti Malaysia Pahang
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2015

This study demonstrates the potential of Na-silica waste sponge as a source of low cost catalyst in the transesterification of waste cooking oil aided by ultrasound. In this work an environmentally friendly and efficient transesterification process using Na-loaded SiO2 from waste sponge skeletons as a solid catalyst is presented. The results showed that the methyl esters content of 98.4 ± 0.4 wt.% was obtainable in less than an hour (h) of reaction time at 55 °C. Optimization of reaction parameters revealed that MeOH:oil, 9:1; catalyst, 3 wt.% and reaction duration of 30 min as optimum reaction conditions. The catalyst is able to tolerant free fatty acid and moisture content up to 6% and 8%, respectively. In addition, the catalyst can be reused for seven cycles while maintaining the methyl esters content at 86.3%. Ultrasound undoubtedly assisted in achieving this remarkable result in less than 1 h reaction time. For the kinetics study at 50-60 °C, a pseudo first order model was proposed, and the activation energy of the reaction is determined as 33.45 kJ/mol using Arrhenius equation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Erwin. 2016. Microscopic decay pattern of yellow meranti (Shorea gibbosa) wood caused by white-rot fungus Phlebia brevispora. Biodiversitas 17: 417-421. The anatomical changes of wood decaying caused by white-rot fungus Phlebia brevispora could provide the basis for evaluating and analysis of decay on yellow meranti (Shorea gibbosa) heartwood. By using soil-block test procedure of JIS K-1571 and microscopic analysis, a progressive decay in vitro of S. gibbosa wood caused by P. brevispora was well characterized. The percentage of wood weight loss was ranged from 0.91% to 12.34%in 2-12 weeks' incubation. On the first 6 weeks of incubation of S. gibbosa infected with P. brevispora, the early stages decay, in which pit erosion and slight erosion of cell walls facilitated by hyphal spreading among cells. The intermediate decay features of numerous and conspicuous holes as well as erosion troughs in cell walls were found after 8 weeks' incubation. Furthermore, complete degradation of wood cell components, defined as the advanced stage of decay, was found in some areas of wood after 12 weeks' incubation. The pattern of wood decay was similar to those of the decayed xylem of S. gibbosa stem canker in field conditions. © 2016, Society for Indonesian Biodiversity. All right reserved.

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