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Samarinda, Indonesia

The Universitas Mulawarman is a public university located in Samarinda, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. It was established on September 27, 1962, making it the oldest tertiary education institution in East Kalimantan. With more than 35,000 students, Universitas Mulawarman is the university with the most students in Kalimantan. Its main campus is in Gunung Kelua, while other campuses are in Pahlawan Road, Banggeris Street and Flores Street of Samarinda.Universitas Mulawarman is striving to be the world-class university which is able to play a role in development through education, research and community service which relies on natural resources, especially the tropical rainforest and its environment. Wikipedia.

Meijaard E.,People and Nature Consulting International | Meijaard E.,Australian National University | Albar G.,Societe dOrnithologie de Polyne sie | Nardiyono,The Nature Conservancy Indonesia Program | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Ecological studies of orangutans have almost exclusively focused on populations living in primary or selectively logged rainforest. The response of orangutans to severe habitat degradation remains therefore poorly understood. Most experts assume that viable populations cannot survive outside undisturbed or slightly disturbed forests. This is a concern because nearly 75% of all orangutans live outside protected areas, where degradation of natural forests is likely to occur, or where these are replaced by planted forests. To improve our understanding of orangutan survival in highly altered forest habitats, we conducted population density surveys in two pulp and paper plantation concessions in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. These plantations consist of areas planted with fast-growing exotics intermixed with stands of highly degraded forests and scrublands. Our rapid surveys indicate unexpectedly high orangutan densities in plantation landscapes dominated by Acacia spp., although it remains unclear whether such landscapes can maintain long-term viable populations. These findings indicate the need to better understand how plantation-dominated landscapes can potentially be incorporated into orangutan conservation planning. Although we emphasize that plantations have less value for overall biodiversity conservation than natural forests, they could potentially boost the chances of orangutan survival. Our findings are based on a relatively short study and various methodological issues need to be addressed, but they suggest that orangutans may be more ecologically flexible than previously thought. © 2010 Meijaard et al. Source

Yonekura Y.,Kyoto University | Ohta S.,Kyoto University | Kiyono Y.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Aksa D.,Mulawarman University | And 3 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2012

Southeast Asia has the highest rate of tropical rainforest deforestation worldwide, and large deforested areas have been replaced ultimately by the highly invasive grass Imperata cylindrica. However, information on the carbon (C) budget with such land transition is very scarce. This study presents the dynamics of soil C following rainforest destruction and the subsequent establishment of Imperata grassland in the lowland humid tropics of Indonesian Borneo using stable C isotopes. To evaluate the relative contribution of organic matter originating from primary forest (C 3) and grasslands (C 4), we compared soil C stock and natural 13C abundance from six sites to a depth of 100 cm using samples with a wide range of soil textures. Twelve years after the first soil sampling in the grasslands, we re-sampled to examine temporal changes in soil organic matter. The grassland topsoil (0-5 cm) is an active layer with rapid decomposition and incorporation of fresh C (mean residence time: 7.5 year) and a substantial proportion of the stable C pool (37%). The decline in forest-derived C was slight, even at 5-10 cm depths, and subsoil (20-100 cm depth) forest-derived C did not change along the forest-to-grassland chronosequence. Grassland-derived C stock increased significantly in the subsurface and subsoils (5-100 cm). Simulation indicated that total soil C stock (0-100 cm) increased by 18.6 Mg ha -1 from initial primary forest (58.0 Mg ha -1) to a new equilibrium state of the grassland (76.6 Mg ha -1) after 30-50 years of grassland establishment. This research indicates that the soil did not function as a CO 2 source when the deforested area was replaced by Imperata grassland on the Ultisols of the Asian humid tropics. Instead, increased soil C stocks offset CO 2 emissions, with the C offset accounting for 6.6-7.4% of the loss of biomass C stock. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Rayadin Y.,Ecology and Conservation Center for Tropical Studies | Rayadin Y.,Mulawarman University | Spehar S.N.,University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2015

Body mass is a key determinant of a species' ecology, including locomotion, foraging strategies, and energetics. Accurate information on the body mass of wild primates allows us to develop explanatory models for relationships among body size, ecology, and behavior and is crucial for reconstructing the ecology and behavior of fossil primates and hominins. Information on body mass can also provide indirect information on health and can be an important tool for conservation in the context of increasingly widespread habitat disturbance. This study reports body mass data recorded for wild Northeast Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) during relocation efforts in forestry and oil palm plantations in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The average mass of flanged adult males (n = 12, 74 ± 9.78 kg) and adult females (n = 7, 35.29 ± 7.32 kg) from this study were 13.6% and 9% lower, respectively, than the only other published wild Bornean orangutan body mass measurements, but the range of weights for both males and females was larger for this study. This pattern could be due to sampling error, data collection differences, or the influence of habitat disturbance, specifically a lack of access to resources, on individual health. When necessary relocations present the opportunity, we encourage researchers to prioritize the collection of body size data for the purposes of understanding ecology but also as an indirect means of monitoring population viability. As primate habitat becomes increasingly fragmented and altered by humans such data will become critical to our ability to make informed conservation decisions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Zuraida I.,Mulawarman University | Sukarno,Bogor Agricultural University | Budijanto S.,Bogor Agricultural University
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2011

Liquid smoking emerges as a potential substitution for traditional smoking method in preserving proteinaceous foods. The study is aimed to investigate antibacterial activity of coconut shell liquid smoke (CSLS) and potential application of CS-LS on fish ball preservation. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of CS-LS is determined with broth dilution method against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. CS-LS was able to inhibit microbial activities of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, giving 0.22% and 0.40% MIC of CS-LS, respectively. Shelf life of fish ball was increased from 16 to 32 hours, determined at 27-28oC, by applying 2.5% CS-LS. At the same concentration of CS-LS, fish ball can achieve 20 days of storage at 4±1oC, giving acceptable TPC count (1.80 log CFU/g) while maintaining stability of pH at 5.7-5.8 and slight moisture content reduction (p<0.05). The results indicated that CS-LS was an effective preservative agent for fish ball. © 2008 IFRJ. Source

Loken B.,Simon Fraser University | Spehar S.,Integrated Conservation | Spehar S.,University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh | Rayadin Y.,Mulawarman University
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2013

Aside from anecdotal evidence, terrestriality in orangutans (Pongo spp.) has not been quantified or subject to careful study and important questions remain about the extent and contexts of terrestrial behavior. Understanding the factors that influence orangutan terrestriality also has significant implications for their conservation. Here we report on a camera trapping study of terrestrial behavior in the northeastern Bornean orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus morio, in Wehea Forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. We used 78 non-baited camera traps set in 43 stations along roads, trails, and at mineral licks (sepans) to document the frequency of orangutan terrestriality. Habitat assessments were used to determine how terrestrial behavior was influenced by canopy connectivity. We compared camera trapping results for P. p. morio to those for a known terrestrial primate (Macaca nemestrina), and another largely arboreal species (Presbytis rubicunda) to assess the relative frequency of terrestrial behavior by P. p. morio. A combined sampling effort of 14,446 trap days resulted in photographs of at least 15 individual orangutans, with females being the most frequently recorded age sex class (N=32) followed by flanged males (N=26 records). P. p. morio represented the second most recorded primate (N=110 total records) of seven primate species recorded. Capture scores for M. nemestrina (0.270) and P. p. morio (0.237) were similar and almost seven times higher than for the next most recorded primate, P. rubicunda (0.035). In addition, our results indicate that for orangutans, there was no clear relationship between canopy connectivity and terrestriality. Overall, our data suggest that terrestriality is relatively common for the orangutans in Wehea Forest and represents a regular strategy employed by individuals of all age-sex classes. As Borneo and Sumatra increasingly become characterized by mixed-use habitats, understanding the ecological requirements and resilience in orangutans is necessary for designing optimal conservation strategies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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