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Guruler H.,Mula Sitki Kocman University | Peker M.,Bilisim Teknolojileri Bolumu
2015 23rd Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference, SIU 2015 - Proceedings | Year: 2015

Complex valued artificial neural networks (CVANN); is a kind of artificial neural network of which parameters such as weight, threshold, input and output consisting of complex numbers. In recent years, CVANN has increasing interest because CVANN gives better results in nonlinear signal processing and image processing problems. There has been no software introduced in the literature for CVANN yet. In this study, CVANN software (CV-ANN), which is developed with object-oriented programming language C#, is presented. In this software tool which is designed with a user-friendly interface, user can set the parameter values of CVANN. Changes in neural network output with respect to entered parameter values are showed graphically. Developed software can facilitate the work of researchers in academic and scientific studies. At the same time, this software can be useful as an educational tool in the sense of making the working mechanism of CVANN clearer. CV-ANN is tested on XOR problem which is a standard test and CV-ANN proves its reliability performing the classification with the accuracy obtained by the same algorithm in the literature. © 2015 IEEE.


Ercan E.,Mula Sitki Kocman University | Tarkan A.S.,Mula Sitki Kocman University
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of salinity on the survival and growth of a freshwater mussel Unio crassus, from a Mediterranean stream (Sariçay Stream) in south-west Anatolia, Turkey, which has highly variable environmental conditions and a salinity gradient. A total of 250 similarly-sized U. crassus were collected from a stream in the species' native range and transferred in ice to Sariçay Stream. The length, width, height and weight of each individual were measured before and after the sampling period, a period of 286 days. Significant increases were detected in the height, width and weight of mussels at all sampling points during the study, with the exception of weight in the sampling station third with salinity of 3‰. Increase in mussel weight was highest at the second station (19.29%) with a moderate salinity (1.5‰), while that with a growth loss was observed at the third station (-1.56%) with the highest salinity concentration (3‰). Survival rates over the duration of the study were 60%, 56%, and 66% at stations 1-3, respectively. All mussels were dead at the fourth (salinity 4.5‰) and fifth stations (salinity 6‰) at the end of the experiment. © 2014 Zoological Society of Pakistan.


Ozturka Y.,Mula Sitki Kocman University | Gulsu M.,Mula Sitki Kocman University
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences | Year: 2013

This paper dealswith the numerical solution of Lane-Emden equations in arising in astrophysics by using truncated shifted Chebyshev series together with the operationalmatrix. Themain characteristic behind the approach using this technique is that it reduces such problems to those of solving a system of algebraic equations those greatly simplifying the problem. Some examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the this technique. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Ozdemir N.,Mula Sitki Kocman University | Tarkan A.S.,Mula Sitki Kocman University | Adamar S.,Mula Sitki Kocman University | Top N.,Mula Sitki Kocman University | Karakus U.,Mula Sitki Kocman University
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2015

The ecological requirements and distribution of the native and non-native freshwater fish species of the Muʇla Province were studied between 2009 and 2011. In total, 19 fish species including 5432 specimens were collected from 17 water bodies. Almost 40% of the fish were from non-native species, which were encountered frequently only from four water bodies. Squalius fellowesii was by far the most abundant species followed by Lepomis gibbosus and Ladigesocypris ghigii. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) explained 76% of the variation (first axis) between species and environmental variables, amongst which altitude, electrical conductivity and water temperature were the most influential. Based on habitat similarities, unweighted pair group means analysis (UPGMA) separated species into four clusters. Results revealed that species' optimum levels and ecological tolerances can be species-specific, even though non-native and widespread endemic species across the basin tended to have higher tolerance ranges for different environmental variables.


Inanc B.B.,Mula Sitki Kocman University
Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics Research | Year: 2015

Acupuncture is a key component of traditional Chinese medicine involving the insertion of needles through the skin at specific points on the body to achieve therapeutic effects and is an ancient Chinese art of healing. Using ancient scientific principles, acupuncture treats illnesses by bringing a person's body into harmony and regulating the balance of Yin and Yang. Balancing Yin and Yang is one basic principle of Chinese medicine, and balancing methods for combination of meridians and acupoints have been described throughout the history of Chinese medicine. Clinical observations and principal research on acupuncture focus on the adjustment of the Zang-Fu organ and have shown that the adjustment by acupuncture relied largely on the effective components in different organs. What does this effectiveness mean? In fact, is acupuncture a treatment that shows its effects with signals to the autocrine, paracrine and endocrine pathways? What role does embryology play in this area? Furthermore, molecular biology has opened avenues to newer methods for the study of embryology and to enhance our understanding of growth and development. Can evaluation of acupuncture with these branches of science be more scientific? We discuss this interesting topic in this original article. After all this time, it is reasonable that different therapeutic techniques and approaches are developed for acupuncture. Copyright © 2015 Cognizant Communication Corp. Printed in the USA.


Cil E.,Mula Sitki Kocman University
American Biology Teacher | Year: 2015

Students need to be aware of plants in order to learn about, appreciate, care for, and protect them. However, research has found that many children are not aware of the plants in their environment. A way to address this issue might be integration of plants with various disciplines. I investigated the effectiveness of an instructional approach based on integration of botany with chemistry and art for increasing students' awareness of plants. The study was carried out in a science summer school for 10- to 12-year-old students (n = 25). A plant awareness questionnaire and a plant blindness test were used as pretests and posttests to assess the effects of the instruction on the students' plant awareness. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the students after instruction. The results indicated that integrating plants with various disciplines might overcome the learning problem of students associated with their "plant blindness." Moreover, this instructional approach can provide students opportunities to learn the names of plants and some concepts in the botanical discipline, as well as help them understand the relationship between plants and other disciplines. © 2015 by National Association of Biology Teachers. All rights reserved.


Nesrullajev A.,Mula Sitki Kocman University | Bilgin Eran B.,Yildiz Technical University
Journal of Molecular Liquids | Year: 2015

We report the thermotropic, thermo-morphologic and structural properties of four homologs of (S)-5-alkyloxy-2-[{4-(2-methylbutoxy)phenylimino}methyl]phenol liquid crystalline salicylaldimine compounds, which are firstly synthesized by our group. These compounds are monomorphic mesogens and exhibit the enantiotropic chiral smectic C∗mesophase (SmC∗). Typical textures of the SmC∗mesophase and crystalline state of these new salicylaldimine compounds in large temperature intervals and in heterophase regions of the direct and reverse phase transitions have been investigated in detail. Temperature dependences of the pitch of chiral structure of the SmC∗mesophase and the space period of chiral structure for both heating and cooling processes have been determined. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Balli S.,Mula Sitki Kocman University | Sen F.,Mula Sitki Kocman University
Strojniski Vestnik/Journal of Mechanical Engineering | Year: 2015

The scope of this study is to create a model that predicts failure loads for mechanically fastened composite plates using a fuzzy expert system. The composite material used in the study was manufactured in both a fibre reinforced manner and with glass fibres. The results of a previous experimental study for cross-ply laminated composite plates that were mechanically fastened with two serial pins or bolts were used to model and predict of failure loads. Furthermore, experimental data of a preceding study were obtained with different geometrical parameters for various applied preload moments (pinned/bolted) as 2, 3, 4 and 5 Nm. In this study, a fuzzy expert system and regression analysis methods were applied by using these geometrical parameters and pinned/bolted joint configurations. Therefore, 5 geometrical parameters and 300 test data were used. According to obtained results, it was determined that the fuzzy expert system was more appropriate than the regression analysis method for modelling and prediction. Performances of the fuzzy expert system and regression analysis method were discussed in terms of error ratios and mean absolute deviations. © 2015 Journal of Mechanical Engineering. All rights reserved.


Nesrullajev A.,Mula Sitki Kocman University
Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials | Year: 2015

Dynamics of orientational and structural transformations between the optical uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematic mesophases has been investigated. These transformations have been studied using the polarizing optical microscopy technique and the conoscopic images. Investigations have been carried out both under influence of the external magnetic field and without this field. Dynamics of transformations of the conoscopic images at structural and thermotropic transitions are presented.


Sen F.,Mula Sitki Kocman University
Advanced Composites Letters | Year: 2016

In this work, an elastic-plastic thermal and residual stress analysis were performed for adhesively bonded single lap joint. For this purpose, thermoplastic composite adherents were bonded to each other with epoxy adhesive. Thermoplastic composite material was reinforced by steel-fibres, unidirectionally. Finite element method (FEM) was preferred to obtain thermal elastic and elastic-plastic stress distributions on single lap joint. Accordingly, modelling and solution processes were achieved using ANSYS software. So as to determine effects of uniform temperature loadings on thermal and residual stresses, different values of it were loaded on the joint, uniformly. Briefly, both thermal and residual thermal stresses were calculated under uniform temperature loading which was selected from 40°C to 80°C. According to obtained results different thermal expansion coeffcients of composite adherents and adhesive layer caused thermal and residual stresses on adhesively bonded single lap joint due to applied uniform temperature loadings. Thermal stress values for x and y-directions are very different from each other owing to orthotropic material properties of thermoplastic composite. The magnitudes of elastic analyses results are higher than elastic-plastic analysis results. Contrary to elastic analysis results, elastic-plastic analysis results were nonlinear. Thermal and residual stresses are increased by increasing uniform temperature values, so the highest values were calculated when 80°C. The plastic yielding was firstly come into being for 50°C loading and it is expanded related to raising thermal loadings as nonlinear.

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