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Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Muhimbili University of Health and Allied science is a public university in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Wikipedia.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: HEALTH.2010.3.4-3 | Award Amount: 2.23M | Year: 2011

The APARET fellowship programme will catalyse independent research activities of graduates of Field Epidemiology Training Programmes (FETP) and Field Epidemiology Laboratory Training programmes (FELTP) in Africa. APARET fellows will be employed as research associates by African APARET partners for 2 years (salary provided by host institute). During the first year of their contract they will be embedded in the EU-supported APARET programme. A core part of the fellowship will be the application for a major research grant. The APARET programme will consist of: - Workshops: a two-week initiation workshop with face-to face contact between fellow and mentor and workshops on topics such as research funding, project management, ethical issues; a one-week proposal writing and project-planning workshop; a one-week final seminar, where fellows will present their result. - A mentoring programme linking each fellow with a local supervisor and an external mentor providing support for scientific and grant writing activities - Small research grants enabling the fellows to perform independent scientific activities at their host institutes. - Embedding the fellows in a network of African and European epidemiologists APARET can be credited towards a PhD degree of the respective university. EU-funding covers 3 successive cohorts of fellows. APARET will support the fellows in meeting the following objectives: I) Main objective: Prepare, write and submit a proposal for a major research grant. II) Additional objectives: 1. Plan, develop and conduct an epidemiological research project. 2. Perform epidemiological analyses 3. Submit a scientific manuscript to a peer-reviewed journal. 4. Critically review and provide feedback on a scientific paper. 5. Participate in the training of other epidemiologists. APARET supports well-trained epidemiologists in establishing a career in Africa.

Semali I.A.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2010

Background. Of global concern is the decline in under five children mortality which has reversed in some countries in sub Saharan Africa (SSA) since the early 1990 s which could be due to disparities in access to preventive services including immunization. This paper is aimed at determining the trend in disparities in completion of immunization using Tanzania Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Methods. DHS studies randomly selected representative households from all regions in Tanzania since 1980 s, is repeated every five years in the same enumeration areas. The last three data sets (1990, 1996 and 2004) were downloaded and analyzed using STATA 9.0. The analysis included all children of between 12-23 months who would have completed all vaccinations required at 12 months. Results. Across the time periods 1990, 1996 to 2004/05 the percentage of children completing vaccination was similar (71.0% in 1990, 72.7% in 1996 and 72.3% in 2005). There was no disparity in completion of immunization with wealth strata in 1990 and 1996 (p > 0.05) but not 2004. In 2004/05 there was marked disparity as most poor experienced significant decline in immunization completion while the least poor had significant increase (p < 0.001). All three periods children from households whose head had low education were less likely to complete immunization (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Equity that existed in 1990 and more pronounced in 1996 regressed to inequity in 2005, thus though at national level immunization coverage did not change, but at sub-group there was significant disparity associated with the changing contexts and reforms. To address sub-group disparities in immunization it is recommended to adopt strategies focused at governance and health system to reach all population groups and most poor. © 2010 Semali; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Moshi M.J.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences
Tanzania journal of health research | Year: 2010

Dichloromethane and/or ethanol extracts of 30 plants used as traditional medicines in Bukoba district, northwestern Tanzania were evaluated for brine shrimp toxicity. Among the 50 extracts tested, 32 extracts (64%) showed very low toxicity with LC50 values above 100 microg/ml. Among these 12 (24%) which had LC50 >500 microg/ml can be categorized as being practically non-toxic. Among the remaining extracts 19 (38%) which showed LC50 > 100 < 500 microg/ml are also considered to be non-toxic. Extracts that showed LC50 results between 30-100 microg/ml have been categorized as mildly toxic; these include ethanol extracts of Lantana trifolia (LC50 32.3 microg/ml), Vernonia bradycalyx (LC50 33.9 microg/ml), Antiaris toxicaria (LC50 38.2 microg/ml) and Rubus rigidus (LC50 41.7 microg/ml) and the dichloromethane extracts of Gynura scandens (LC50 36.5 microg/ml) and Bridelia micrantha (LC50 32.0 microg/ml). The dichloromethane extracts of Picralima nitida (LC50 18.3 microg/ml) and Rubus rigidus (LC50 19.8 microg/ml), were only moderately toxic. Picralima nitida and Rubus rigidus extracts are only 1.1 and 1.2 less toxic than the standard drug, cyclophosphamide (LC50 16.3 microg/ml). In conclusion, the results indicate that among the 30 plants used as traditional medicines, 28 are safe for short term use. Picralima nitida and Rubus rigidus extracts are mildly toxic, but by comparison have a remote possibility to yield active anticancer compounds.

Lwoga E.,Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences
Campus-Wide Information Systems | Year: 2012

Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the extent to which learning and Web 2.0 technologies are utilised to support learning and teaching in Africa's higher learning institutions, with a specific focus on Tanzania's public universities. Design/methodology/approach: A combination of content analysis and semi-structured interviews was used to collect data. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ICT personnel from six of the eight public universities in Tanzania in 2011. Findings: The study found that the adoption of e-learning and Web 2.0 technologies is still in its infancy in Tanzania's public universities. However, there was much enthusiasm amongst respondents for developing the potential of e-learning and Web 2.0 tools in their universities. Practical implications: The study seeks to promote academic inquiry about the need for innovative Web 2.0 technologies in learning and teaching and the adoption of these emerging technologies in Africa's higher learning institutions. Originality/value: The study provides empirical findings on the use of e-learning and Web 2.0 for higher education, specifically in the Tanzanian context. The study provides a basis for further research on the use of Web 2.0 technologies in higher education. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of group counseling, using a problem-solving therapy approach, on reducing depressive symptoms and increasing prenatal disclosure rates of HIV status among HIV-positive pregnant women living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A randomized controlled trial was performed comparing a six-week structured nurse-midwife facilitated psychosocial support group with the standard of care. Sixty percent of women in the intervention group were depressed post-intervention, versus 73% in the control group [Relative Risk (RR) = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67-1.01, p=0.066]. HIV disclosure rates did not differ across the two study arms. However, among those women who disclosed, there was a significantly higher level of overall personal satisfaction with the response to disclosure from family and friends among women in the treatment (88%) compared to the control group (62%; p=0.004). The results indicate reductions in the level of depressive symptoms comparable with major depressive disorder (MDD) for HIV-positive pregnant women participating in a group counseling intervention. Although the psychosocial group counseling did not significantly increase disclosure rates, an improvement in the level of personal satisfaction resulting from disclosure was associated with the intervention. This suggests that the counseling sessions have likely reduced the burden of depression and helped clients better manage partner reactions to disclosure. Public agencies and non-governmental organizations working in Tanzania and similar settings should consider offering structured psychosocial support groups to HIV-positive pregnant women to prevent poor mental health outcomes, promote early childhood development, and potentially impact HIV-related disease outcomes in the long term.

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