Aurora, CO, United States
Aurora, CO, United States

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Collins C.B.,Mucosal Inflammation Program | Aherne C.M.,Mucosal Inflammation Program | Ehrentraut S.F.,Mucosal Inflammation Program | Gerich M.E.,Mucosal Inflammation Program | And 6 more authors.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) clearance has been a marker of clinical disease severity in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) for many years. Although AAT deficiency is more often associated with lung and liver pathologies, AAT-deficient patients with concomitant IBD have been shown to develop more aggressive disease and rapid progression to surgery. Although recent studies have highlighted the pleiotropic anti-inflammatory functions of AAT, including reducing proinflammatory cytokine production and suppressing immune cell activation, its potential therapeutic role in IBD has not been described. Methods: The therapeutic potential of human AAT administration was assessed in murine models of IBD including new-onset and established chemically induced colitis and spontaneous chronic murine ileitis. Histological assessment of inflammation, cytokine secretion profiling, and flow cytometric evaluation of inflammatory infiltrate were performed in each model. The effect of AAT on intestinal barrier function was also examined both in vitro and in vivo. Results: AAT attenuated inflammation in small and large intestinal IBD models through reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, inflammatory cell infiltration, and reduced tissue injury. AAT also increased intestinal restitution after chemically induced colitis. AAT significantly decreased intestinal permeability in vitro and in vivo as part of a protective mechanism for both acute and chronic models of IBD. Conclusions: Our findings describe a beneficial role for AAT in IBD models through suppression of cytokine production and enhanced intestinal barrier function. This raises the possibility that AAT supplementation, which has a long history of proven safety, may have a therapeutic effect in human IBD. Copyright © 2013 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.


Saeedi B.J.,Mucosal Inflammation Program | Kao D.J.,Mucosal Inflammation Program | Kitzenberg D.A.,Mucosal Inflammation Program | Dobrinskikh E.,Gastrointestinal Eosinophilic Diseases Program | And 12 more authors.
Molecular Biology of the Cell | Year: 2015

Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are exposed to profound fluctuations in oxygen tension and have evolved adaptive transcriptional responses to a low-oxygen environment. These adaptations are mediated primarily through the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) complex. Given the central role of the IEC in barrier function, we sought to determine whether HIF influenced epithelial tight junction (TJ) structure and function. Initial studies revealed that short hairpin RNA-mediated depletion of the HIF1β in T84 cells resulted in profound defects in barrier and nonuniform, undulating TJ morphology. Global HIF1α chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis identified claudin-1 (CLDN1) as a prominent HIF target gene. Analysis of HIF1β-deficient IEC revealed significantly reduced levels of CLDN1. Overexpression of CLDN1 in HIF1β-deficient cells resulted in resolution of morphological abnormalities and restoration of barrier function. ChIP and site-directed mutagenesis revealed prominent hypoxia response elements in the CLDN1 promoter region. Subsequent in vivo analysis revealed the importance of HIF-mediated CLDN1 expression during experimental colitis. These results identify a critical link between HIF and specific tight junction function, providing important insight into mechanisms of HIF-regulated epithelial homeostasis. © 2015 Saeedi, Kao, et al.


McNamee E.N.,Mucosal Inflammation Program | Masterson J.C.,Mucosal Inflammation Program | Masterson J.C.,Childrens Hospital Colorado | Jedlicka P.,University of Colorado at Denver | And 3 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2013

Background: The earliest endoscopically-evident lesion in Crohn's disease is the aphthous ulcer, which develops over ectopic lymphoid tissues (ie, inducible lymphoid follicles (ILF), tertiary lymphoid tissue (TLT)) in the chronically inflamed intestine. ILF/TLT are induced within effector sites by homeostatic lymphoid chemokines, but their role in the development of intestinal ILF/TLT and in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease is poorly understood. Design: Using a mouse model of Crohn's-like ileitis (TNFΔARE) which develops florid induction of ILF/TLT within its terminal ileum, the contribution of the CCR7/ CCL19/CCL21 chemokine axis during the development of TLT and its role in disease pathogenesis were assessed. Results: Both CCL19 and CCL21 were increased within the inflamed ileum of TNFΔARE mice, which resulted in CCR7 internalisation and impaired T cell chemotaxis. ILF/ TLT were a major source of CCL19 and CCL21 and increased local synthesis, augmented recruitment/ retention of effector, naïve and central memory T cell subsets within the inflamed ileum. Immunoblockade of CCR7 resulted in further effector T cell retention and exacerbation of ileitis. Conclusions: Induction of ILF/TLT in the chronically inflamed intestine alters the homeostatic CCL19-CCL21 lymphoid-chemokine gradient and increases recruitment/ retention of effector CCR7+ T cell subsets within the terminal ileum, contributing to the perpetuation of chronic inflammation. Thus, blockade of CCR7 or its ligands might result in deleterious consequences for subjects with chronic inflammatory diseases.


PubMed | University of Bonn, Mucosal Inflammation Program and Aurora University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology | Year: 2015

There is interest in understanding post-translational modifications of proteins in inflammatory disease. Neddylation is the conjugation of the molecule neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8) to promote protein stabilization. Cullins are a family of NEDD8 targets important in the stabilization and degradation of proteins, such as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF; via Cullin-2). Here, we elucidate the role of human deneddylase-1 (DEN-1, also called SENP8) in inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo and define conditions for targeting neddylation in models of mucosal inflammation. HIF provides protection in inflammatory models, so we examined the contribution of DEN-1 to HIF stabilization. Pharmacologic targeting of neddylation activity with MLN4924 (IC50, 4.7 nM) stabilized HIF-1, activated HIF promoter activity by 2.5-fold, and induced HIF-target genes in human epithelial cells up to 5-fold. Knockdown of DEN-1 in human intestinal epithelial cells resulted in increased kinetics in barrier formation, decreased permeability, and enhanced barrier restitution by 2 0.5-fold. Parallel studies in vivo revealed that MLN4924 abrogated disease severity in murine dextran sulfate sodium colitis, including weight loss, colon length, and histologic severity. We conclude that DEN-1 is a regulator of cullin neddylation and fine-tunes the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. Pharmacologic inhibition of cullin neddylation may provide a therapeutic opportunity in mucosal inflammatory disease.


PubMed | Mucosal Inflammation Program
Type: | Journal: Mucosal immunology | Year: 2017

IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine that inhibits the production of proinflammatory mediators. Signaling by IL-10 occurs through the IL-10 receptor (IL-10R), which is expressed in numerous cell types, including intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), where it is associated with development and maintenance of barrier function. Guided by an unbiased metabolomics screen, we identified tryptophan (Trp) metabolism as a major modifying pathway in interferon- (IFN)-dominant murine colitis. In parallel, we demonstrated that IFN induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of Trp to kynurenine (Kyn), induces IL-10R1 expression. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that IL-10R1 expression on IEC is regulated by Trp metabolites. Analysis of the promoter region of IL-10R1 revealed a functional aryl hydrocarbon response element, which is induced by Kyn in luciferase-based IL-10R1 promoter assays. Additionally, this analysis confirmed that IL-10R1 protein levels were increased in response to Kyn in IEC in vitro. Studies using in vitro wounding assays revealed that Kyn accelerates IL-10-dependent wound closure. Finally, reduction of murine dextran sodium sulfate colitis through Kyn administration correlates with colonic IL-10R1 expression. Taken together, these results provide evidence on the importance of IL-10 signaling in intestinal epithelia and implicate AHR in the regulation of IL-10R1 expression in the colon.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 18 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mi.2016.133.

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