Mucosal and Vaccine Research Center

Minneapolis, MN, United States

Mucosal and Vaccine Research Center

Minneapolis, MN, United States

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Silva E.J.,University of Minnesota | Silva E.J.,Grande Rio University | Argyris P.P.,University of Minnesota | Zou X.,University of Minnesota | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2014

Intracellular calprotectin (S100A8/A9) functions in the control of the cell cycle checkpoint at G2/M. Dysregulation of S100A8/A9 appears to cause loss of the checkpoint, which frequently characterizes head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In the present study, we analyzed carcinoma cells for other S100A8/A9-directed changes in malignant phenotype. Using a S100A8/A9-negative human carcinoma cell line (KB), transfection to express S100A8 and S100A9 caused selective down-regulation of MMP-2 and inhibited in vitro invasion and migration. Conversely, silencing of endogenous S100A8 and S100A9 expression in TR146 cells, a well-differentiated HNSCC cell line, increased MMP-2 activity and in vitro invasion and migration. When MMP-2 expression was silenced, cells appeared to assume a less malignant phenotype. To more closely model the architecture of cell growth in vivo, cells were grown in a 3D collagen substrate, which was compared to 2D. Growth on 3D substrates caused greater MMP-2 expression. Whereas hypermethylation of CpG islands occurs frequently in HNSCC, S100A8/A9-dependent regulation of MMP-2 could not be explained by modification of the upstream promoters of MMP2 or TIMP2. Collectively, these results suggest that intracellular S100A8/A9 contributes to the cancer cell phenotype by modulating MMP-2 expression and activity to regulate cell migration and mobility.


Fan J.,University of Minnesota | Fan J.,University of Rochester | Zhang Y.,University of Minnesota | Chuang-Smith O.N.,University of Minnesota | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Streptococcus sanguinis is the most common cause of infective endocarditis (IE). Since the molecular basis of virulence of this oral commensal bacterium remains unclear, we searched the genome of S. sanguinis for previously unidentified virulence factors. We identified a cell surface ecto-5′-nucleotidase (Nt5e), as a candidate virulence factor. By colorimetric phosphate assay, we showed that S. sanguinis Nt5e can hydrolyze extracellular adenosine triphosphate to generate adenosine. Moreover, a nt5e deletion mutant showed significantly shorter lag time (P<0.05) to onset of platelet aggregation than the wild-type strain, without affecting platelet-bacterial adhesion in vitro (P = 0.98). In the absence of nt5e, S. sanguinis caused IE (4 d) in a rabbit model with significantly decreased mass of vegetations (P<0.01) and recovered bacterial loads (log 10CFU, P = 0.01), suggesting that Nt5e contributes to the virulence of S. sanguinis in vivo. As a virulence factor, Nt5e may function by (i) hydrolyzing ATP, a pro-inflammatory molecule, and generating adenosine, an immunosuppressive molecule to inhibit phagocytic monocytes/macrophages associated with valvular vegetations. (ii) Nt5e-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation could also delay presentation of platelet microbicidal proteins to infecting bacteria on heart valves. Both plausible Nt5e-dependent mechanisms would promote survival of infecting S. sanguinis. In conclusion, we now show for the first time that streptococcal Nt5e modulates S. sanguinis-induced platelet aggregation and may contribute to the virulence of streptococci in experimental IE. © 2012 Fan et al.


Zhu L.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Zhang Y.,University of Minnesota | Fan J.,University of Minnesota | Herzberg M.C.,University of Minnesota | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Oral Microbiology | Year: 2011

Streptococcus sanguinis is an oral commensal bacterium and endogenous pathogen in the blood, which is generally naturally competent to take up extracellular DNA. Regarded as a stress response, competence development enables S. sanguinis to acquire new genetic material. The sequenced reference strain SK36 encodes and expresses the genes required for competence (com) and uptake of DNA. Isolated from blood cultures of a confirmed case of infective endocarditis, strain 133-79 encodes all necessary com genes but is not transformable under conditions permissive for competence development in SK36. Using synthetic competence-stimulating peptides (sCSP) based on sequences of SK36 and 133-79 comC, both strains developed competence at similar frequencies in cross-transformation experiments. Furthermore, downstream response pathways are similar in strains SK36 and 133-79 because platelet aggregation and biofilm formation appeared unaffected by CSP. Collectively, the data indicate that strains SK36 and 133-79 respond to CSP similarly, strongly suggesting that endogenous production or release of CSP from 133-79 is impaired. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Zou X.,University of Minnesota | Sorenson B.S.,University of Minnesota | Ross K.F.,University of Minnesota | Ross K.F.,Mucosal and Vaccine Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2013

To protect against invading bacteria, oral epithelial cells appear to use two effector antimicrobial peptides (AMPs): calprotectin (S100A8-S100A9 heterodimer [S100A8/A9]) in the cytosol and cathelicidin antimicrobial protein (CAMP) in endosomes. We sought to learn whether innate immunity might be augmented benignly to increase resistance against invasive bacteria. Epithelial cells were transiently transfected with mRNA constructs containing either the CAMP, S100A8, and S100A9 open reading frames, A8-IRES-A9 (fusion sequence), or A8-nIRES-A9 (fusion with native internal ribosome entry site [IRES] sequence). CAMP, S100A8, and S100A9 protein levels generally peaked between 16 and 44 h after mRNA transfection, depending on the construct; CAMP was processed to LL-37 over time. Following transfection with the respective mRNAs, CAMP and S100A8/A9 each independently increased resistance of epithelial cells to invasion by Listeria and Salmonella for up to 48 h; tandem S100A8/A9 constructs were also effective. Cotransfection to express S100A8/A9 and CAMP together augmented resistance, but synergy was not seen. Independent of the new proteins produced, transfection reduced cell viability after 48 h by 20%, with only 2% attributable to apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that epithelial cell resistance to invasive pathogens can be augmented by transient transfection of antimicrobial mRNAs into epithelial cells. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.


Sorenson B.S.,University of Minnesota | Khammanivong A.,University of Minnesota | Guenther B.D.,University of Minnesota | Ross K.F.,University of Minnesota | And 3 more authors.
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2012

Previously, we reported that epithelial cells respond to exogenous interleukin (IL)-1α by increasing expression of several genes involved in the host response to microbes, including the antimicrobial protein complex calprotectin (S100A8/A9). Given that S100A8/A9 protects epithelial cells against invading bacteria, we studied whether IL-1α augments S100A8/A9-dependent resistance to bacterial invasion of oral keratinocytes. When inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes, human buccal epithelial (TR146) cells expressed and released IL-1α. Subsequently, IL-1α-containing media from Listeria-infected cells increased S100A8/A9 gene expression in nave TR146 cells an IL-1 receptor (IL-1R)-dependent manner. Incubation with exogenous IL-1α decreased Listeria invasion into TR146 cells, whereas invasion increased with IL-1R antagonist. Conversely, when S100A8/A9 genes were knocked down using short hairpin RNA (shRNA), TR146 cells responded to exogenous IL-1α with increased intracellular bacteria. These data strongly suggest that infected epithelial cells release IL-1α to signal neighboring keratinocytes in a paracrine manner, promoting S100A8/A9-dependent resistance to invasive L. monocytogenes.


Costalonga M.,University of Minnesota | Herzberg M.C.,University of Minnesota | Herzberg M.C.,Mucosal and Vaccine Research Center
Immunology Letters | Year: 2014

The composition of the oral microbiome differs from one intraoral site to another, reflecting in part the host response and immune capacity at each site. By focusing on two major oral infections, periodontal disease and caries, new principles of disease emerge. Periodontal disease affects the soft tissues and bone that support the teeth. Caries is a unique infection of the dental hard tissues. The initiation of both diseases is marked by an increase in the complexity of the microbiome. In periodontitis, pathobionts and keystone pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis appear in greater proportion than in health. As a keystone pathogen, P. gingivalis impairs host immune responses and appears necessary but not sufficient to cause periodontitis. Historically, dental caries had been causally linked to Streptococcus mutans. Contemporary microbiome studies now indicate that singular pathogens are not obvious in either caries or periodontitis. Both diseases appear to result from a perturbation among relatively minor constituents in local microbial communities resulting in dysbiosis. Emergent consortia of the minor members of the respective microbiomes act synergistically to stress the ability of the host to respond and protect. In periodontal disease, host protection first occurs at the level of innate gingival epithelial immunity. Secretory IgA antibody and other salivary antimicrobial systems also act against periodontopathic and cariogenic consortia. When the gingival immune response is impaired, periodontal tissue pathology results when matrix metalloproteinases are released from neutrophils and T cells mediate alveolar bone loss. In caries, several species are acidogenic and aciduric and appear to work synergistically to promote demineralization of the enamel and dentin. Whereas technically possible, particularly for caries, vaccines are unlikely to be commercialized in the near future because of the low morbidity of caries and periodontitis. © 2014.


Lei Y.,University of Minnesota | Zhang Y.,University of Minnesota | Guenther B.D.,University of Minnesota | Kreth J.,University of Minnesota | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2011

Methionine sulphoxide reductase maintains adhesin function during oxidative stress. Using Streptococcus gordonii as a model, we now show the mechanistic basis of adhesin maintenance provided by MsrA. In biofilms, S. gordonii selectively expresses the msrA gene. When the wild-type strain was grown with exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), msrA-specific mRNA expression significantly increased, while acid production was unaffected. In the presence of H2O2, a msrA-deletion mutant (ΔMsrA) showed a 6h delay in lag phase growth, a 30% lower yield of H2O2, significantly greater inhibition by H2O2 on agar plates (reversed by complementation), 30% less adhesion to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite, 87% less biofilm formation and an altered electrophoretic pattern of SspAB protein adhesins. Using mass spectrometry, methionine residues in the Met-rich central region of SspB were shown to be oxidized by H2O2 and reduced by MsrA. In intact wild-type cells, MsrA colocalized with a cell wall-staining dye, and MsrA was detected in both cell wall and cytosolic fractions. To maintain normal adhesion and biofilm function of S. gordonii in response to exogenous oxidants therefore msrA is upregulated, methionine oxidation of adhesins and perhaps other proteins is reversed, and adhesion and biofilm formation is maintained. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Kindblom C.,Malmö University | Davies J.R.,Malmö University | Herzberg M.C.,University of Minnesota | Herzberg M.C.,Mucosal and Vaccine Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Oral Microbiology | Year: 2012

A major function of the salivary pellicle on oral surfaces is to promote colonization of the commensal microbiota by providing binding sites for adherence. Streptococcus mitis is an early colonizer of the oral cavity whereas Streptococcus mutans represents a later colonizer. To survive and grow, oral bacteria produce enzymes, proteases and glycosidases, which allow them to exploit salivary proteins as a nutrient source. In this study, adherence and proteolytic activity of S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans were investigated in a flow-cell model in the presence of different populations of surface-associated salivary proteins. Streptococcus mitis biovar 2 adhered well to surfaces coated with both a MUC5B-enriched fraction and a pool of low-density proteins containing MUC7, amylase, cystatin, gp340, immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme and statherin, whereas adherence of S. mutans to these proteins was poor. In environments of MUC5B or the low-density proteins, both S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans showed high levels of proteolytic activity. For S. mitis in the MUC5B environment, most of this activity may be attributable to contact with the molecules in the fluid phase although activity was also enhanced by adherence to surface-associated MUC5B. These data suggest that although they differ in their capacity to adhere to surface-associated salivary proteins, in the natural environment exploitation of saliva as a nutrient source can contribute to survival and colonization of the oral cavity by both S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Zheng L.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Zheng L.,Liaoning Medical University | Chen Z.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Itzek A.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Oral Microbiology | Year: 2012

Streptococcus gordonii is an important member of the oral biofilm community. As an oral commensal streptococcus, S. gordonii is considered beneficial in promoting biofilm homeostasis. CcpA is known as the central regulator of carbon catabolite repression in Gram-positive bacteria and is also involved in the control of virulence gene expression. To further establish the role of CcpA as central regulator in S. gordonii, the effect of CcpA on biofilm formation and natural competence of S. gordonii was investigated. These phenotypic traits have been suggested to be important to oral streptococci in coping with environmental stress. Here we demonstrate that a CcpA mutant was severely impaired in its biofilm-forming ability, showed a defect in extracellular polysaccharide production and reduced competence. The data suggest that CcpA is involved in the regulation of biofilm formation and competence development in S. gordonii. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Bando M.,Tokushima University | Zou X.,University of Minnesota | Hiroshima Y.,Tokushima University | Kataoka M.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | And 7 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms | Year: 2013

S100A9 is a calcium-binding protein and subunit of antimicrobial calprotectin complex (S100A8/A9). Produced by neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages and keratinocytes, S100A9 expression increases in response to inflammation. For example, IL-1α produced by epithelial cells acts autonomously on the same cells to induce the expression of S100A8/A9 and cellular differentiation. Whereas it is well known that IL-1α and members of the IL-10 family of cytokines upregulate S100A8 and S100A9 in several cell lineages, the pathway and mechanism of IL-1α-dependent transcriptional control of S100A9 in epithelial cells are not established. Modeled using human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), IL-1α stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and induced S100A9 expression, which was blocked by IL-1 receptor antagonist, RNAi suppression of p38, or a p38 MAPK inhibitor. Transcription of S100A9 in HaCaT cells depended on nucleotides -. 94 to -. 53 in the upstream promoter region, based upon the use of deletion constructs and luciferase reporter activity. Within the responsive promoter region, IL-1α increased the binding activity of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ). Mutated C/EBPβ binding sequences or C/EBPβ-specific siRNA inhibited the S100A9 transcriptional response. Hence, IL-1α is strongly suggested to increase S100A9 expression in a human epidermal keratinocyte cell line by signaling through the IL-1 receptor and p38 MAPK, increasing C/EBPβ-dependent transcriptional activity.© 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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