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Zheng L.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Zheng L.,Liaoning Medical University | Chen Z.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Itzek A.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Oral Microbiology | Year: 2012

Streptococcus gordonii is an important member of the oral biofilm community. As an oral commensal streptococcus, S. gordonii is considered beneficial in promoting biofilm homeostasis. CcpA is known as the central regulator of carbon catabolite repression in Gram-positive bacteria and is also involved in the control of virulence gene expression. To further establish the role of CcpA as central regulator in S. gordonii, the effect of CcpA on biofilm formation and natural competence of S. gordonii was investigated. These phenotypic traits have been suggested to be important to oral streptococci in coping with environmental stress. Here we demonstrate that a CcpA mutant was severely impaired in its biofilm-forming ability, showed a defect in extracellular polysaccharide production and reduced competence. The data suggest that CcpA is involved in the regulation of biofilm formation and competence development in S. gordonii. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Kindblom C.,Malmo University | Davies J.R.,Malmo University | Herzberg M.C.,University of Minnesota | Herzberg M.C.,Mucosal and Vaccine Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Oral Microbiology | Year: 2012

A major function of the salivary pellicle on oral surfaces is to promote colonization of the commensal microbiota by providing binding sites for adherence. Streptococcus mitis is an early colonizer of the oral cavity whereas Streptococcus mutans represents a later colonizer. To survive and grow, oral bacteria produce enzymes, proteases and glycosidases, which allow them to exploit salivary proteins as a nutrient source. In this study, adherence and proteolytic activity of S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans were investigated in a flow-cell model in the presence of different populations of surface-associated salivary proteins. Streptococcus mitis biovar 2 adhered well to surfaces coated with both a MUC5B-enriched fraction and a pool of low-density proteins containing MUC7, amylase, cystatin, gp340, immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme and statherin, whereas adherence of S. mutans to these proteins was poor. In environments of MUC5B or the low-density proteins, both S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans showed high levels of proteolytic activity. For S. mitis in the MUC5B environment, most of this activity may be attributable to contact with the molecules in the fluid phase although activity was also enhanced by adherence to surface-associated MUC5B. These data suggest that although they differ in their capacity to adhere to surface-associated salivary proteins, in the natural environment exploitation of saliva as a nutrient source can contribute to survival and colonization of the oral cavity by both S. mitis biovar 2 and S. mutans. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Costalonga M.,University of Minnesota | Herzberg M.C.,University of Minnesota | Herzberg M.C.,Mucosal and Vaccine Research Center
Immunology Letters | Year: 2014

The composition of the oral microbiome differs from one intraoral site to another, reflecting in part the host response and immune capacity at each site. By focusing on two major oral infections, periodontal disease and caries, new principles of disease emerge. Periodontal disease affects the soft tissues and bone that support the teeth. Caries is a unique infection of the dental hard tissues. The initiation of both diseases is marked by an increase in the complexity of the microbiome. In periodontitis, pathobionts and keystone pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis appear in greater proportion than in health. As a keystone pathogen, P. gingivalis impairs host immune responses and appears necessary but not sufficient to cause periodontitis. Historically, dental caries had been causally linked to Streptococcus mutans. Contemporary microbiome studies now indicate that singular pathogens are not obvious in either caries or periodontitis. Both diseases appear to result from a perturbation among relatively minor constituents in local microbial communities resulting in dysbiosis. Emergent consortia of the minor members of the respective microbiomes act synergistically to stress the ability of the host to respond and protect. In periodontal disease, host protection first occurs at the level of innate gingival epithelial immunity. Secretory IgA antibody and other salivary antimicrobial systems also act against periodontopathic and cariogenic consortia. When the gingival immune response is impaired, periodontal tissue pathology results when matrix metalloproteinases are released from neutrophils and T cells mediate alveolar bone loss. In caries, several species are acidogenic and aciduric and appear to work synergistically to promote demineralization of the enamel and dentin. Whereas technically possible, particularly for caries, vaccines are unlikely to be commercialized in the near future because of the low morbidity of caries and periodontitis. © 2014.

Zhu L.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Zhang Y.,University of Minnesota | Fan J.,University of Minnesota | Herzberg M.C.,University of Minnesota | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Oral Microbiology | Year: 2011

Streptococcus sanguinis is an oral commensal bacterium and endogenous pathogen in the blood, which is generally naturally competent to take up extracellular DNA. Regarded as a stress response, competence development enables S. sanguinis to acquire new genetic material. The sequenced reference strain SK36 encodes and expresses the genes required for competence (com) and uptake of DNA. Isolated from blood cultures of a confirmed case of infective endocarditis, strain 133-79 encodes all necessary com genes but is not transformable under conditions permissive for competence development in SK36. Using synthetic competence-stimulating peptides (sCSP) based on sequences of SK36 and 133-79 comC, both strains developed competence at similar frequencies in cross-transformation experiments. Furthermore, downstream response pathways are similar in strains SK36 and 133-79 because platelet aggregation and biofilm formation appeared unaffected by CSP. Collectively, the data indicate that strains SK36 and 133-79 respond to CSP similarly, strongly suggesting that endogenous production or release of CSP from 133-79 is impaired. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Lei Y.,University of Minnesota | Zhang Y.,University of Minnesota | Guenther B.D.,University of Minnesota | Kreth J.,University of Minnesota | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2011

Methionine sulphoxide reductase maintains adhesin function during oxidative stress. Using Streptococcus gordonii as a model, we now show the mechanistic basis of adhesin maintenance provided by MsrA. In biofilms, S. gordonii selectively expresses the msrA gene. When the wild-type strain was grown with exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), msrA-specific mRNA expression significantly increased, while acid production was unaffected. In the presence of H2O2, a msrA-deletion mutant (ΔMsrA) showed a 6h delay in lag phase growth, a 30% lower yield of H2O2, significantly greater inhibition by H2O2 on agar plates (reversed by complementation), 30% less adhesion to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite, 87% less biofilm formation and an altered electrophoretic pattern of SspAB protein adhesins. Using mass spectrometry, methionine residues in the Met-rich central region of SspB were shown to be oxidized by H2O2 and reduced by MsrA. In intact wild-type cells, MsrA colocalized with a cell wall-staining dye, and MsrA was detected in both cell wall and cytosolic fractions. To maintain normal adhesion and biofilm function of S. gordonii in response to exogenous oxidants therefore msrA is upregulated, methionine oxidation of adhesins and perhaps other proteins is reversed, and adhesion and biofilm formation is maintained. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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