Mucho Biotechnology Inc.

Taipei, Taiwan

Mucho Biotechnology Inc.

Taipei, Taiwan
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Chou S.-M.,National Taiwan University | Lai W.-J.,Mucho Biotechnology Inc. | Hong T.,Mucho Biotechnology Inc. | Hong T.,National Taiwan University | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Chinese Medicine | Year: 2015

Cordyceps militaris is a traditional Chinese medicine frequently used for tonic and therapeutic purposes. Reports from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that extracts of the cultivated fruiting bodies of C. militaris (CM) exhibit a potent cytotoxic effect against many cancer cell lines, especially human leukemia cells. Here, we further investigated the underlying mechanism through which CM is cytotoxic to cancer cells. The CM-mediated induction of PARP cleavage and its related DNA damage signal (γH2AX) was diminished by caspase inhibitor I. In contrast, a ROS scavenger failed to prevent CM-mediated leukemia cell death. Moreover, two signaling molecules, AKT and p38 MAPK, were activated during the course of apoptosis induction. Employing MTT analysis, we found that a p38 MAPK inhibitor but not an AKT inhibitor could rescue cells from CM-mediated cell death, as well as inhibit the cleavage of PARP, formation of apoptotic bodies and up-regulation of the γH2AX signal. These results suggest that CM-mediated leukemia cell death occurs through the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway, indicating its potential therapeutic effects against human leukemia. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company & Institute for Advanced Research in Asian Science and Medicine.


Chou S.-M.,National Taiwan University | Lai W.-J.,Mucho Biotechnology Inc. | Hong T.-W.,Mucho Biotechnology Inc. | Hong T.-W.,National Taiwan University | And 10 more authors.
Phytomedicine | Year: 2014

Cordyceps militaris is a well-known Chinese traditional medicinal mushroom frequently used for tonics and recently of a potential interest for cancer intervention. Here, we explored the cancer cell killing activity of the hot water extracts of C. militaris cultured mycelia (CMMY) and cultivated fruiting bodies (CMFB). We found that CMFBexhibited a greater cytotoxic effect against various cancer cells over CMMY. Apoptotic phenotypes including apoptotic body formation, DNA laddering, caspase 3 activation and cleavage of PARP proteins were induced by CMFBtreatment but only slightly induced by same concentration of CMMYtreatment in human HL-60 leukemia cells. Cordycepin in CMFB(10.47 mg/g) is significantly higher (∼15.2 times) than that of CMMY(0.69 mg/g). Using isobolographic analysis, the synergy of cytotoxicity was observed across different combined concentrations of CMMYand cordycepin. By complementing cordycepin into CMMYto the level comparable with CMFB, we observed that CMMY(500 μg/ml) with cordycepin (4.8 μg/ml) induced apoptosis to a level similar to that induced by CMFB(500 μg/ml). Together, our results suggest that cordycepin possesses a synergistic cytotoxic effect with Cordyceps militaris-mediated apoptosis in human leukemia cells and therefore explaining a better anti-proliferating activity of CMFBover CMMY. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.


Wang Y.-W.,National Taiwan University | Hong T.-W.,Mucho Biotechnology Inc. | Tai Y.-L.,National Taiwan University | Wang Y.-J.,National Taiwan University | And 11 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2015

The substantial merit of Cordyceps s.l. spp. in terms of medicinal benefits is largely appreciated. Nevertheless, only few studies have characterized and examined the clinical complications of the use of health tonics containing these species. Here, we epitypified C. formosana isolates that were collected and characterized as Ophiocordyceps formosana based on morphological characteristics, molecular phylogenetic analyses, and metabolite profiling. Thus, we renamed and transferred C. formosana to the new protologue Ophiocordyceps formosana (Kobayasi & Shimizu) Wang, Tsai, Tzean & Shen comb. nov. Additionally, the pharmacological potential of O. formosana was evaluated based on the hot-water extract from its mycelium. The relative amounts of the known bioactive ingredients that are unique to Cordyceps s.l. species in O. formosana were found to be similar to the amounts in O. sinensis and C. militaris, indicating the potential applicability of O. formosana for pharmacological uses. Additionally, we found that O. formosana exhibited antioxidation activities in vitro and in vivo that were similar to those of O. sinensis and C. militaris. Furthermore, O. formosana also displayed conspicuously effective antitumor activity compared with the tested Cordyceps s.l. species. Intrinsically, O. formosana exhibited less toxicity than the other Cordyceps species. Together, our data suggest that the metabolites of O. formosana may play active roles in complementary medicine. © 2015 Yen-Wen Wang et al.


Huang C.-W.,National Taiwan University of Science and Technology | Hong T.-W.,Mucho Biotechnology Inc. | Wang Y.-J.,National Taiwan University | Chen K.-C.,National Taiwan University | And 11 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2016

Background: A newly defined Cordyceps species, Ophiocordyceps formosana (O. formosana) has been implicated in multitudinous bioactivities, including lowering glucose and cholesterol levels and modulating the immune system. However, few literatures demonstrate sufficient evidence to support these proposed functions. Although the use of Cordyceps spp. has been previously addressed to improve insulin insensitivity and improve the detrimental symptoms of depression; its mechanistic nature remains unsettled. Herein, we reveal the effects of O. formosana in ameliorating hyperglycemia accompanied with depression. Methods: Diabetes was induced in mice by employing streptozotocin(STZ), a chemical that is toxic to insulin-producing β cells of the pancreas. These streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice showed combined symptoms of hyperglycemia and depressive behaviors. Twenty-four STZ-induced mice were randomly divided into 3 groups subjected to oral gavage with 100 μL solution of either PBS or 25 mg/mL Ophiocordyceps formosana extract (OFE) or 2 mg/mL rosiglitazone (Rosi, positive control group). Treatments were administered once per day for 28 days. An additional 6 mice without STZ induction were treated with PBS to serve as the control group. Insulin sensitivity was measured by a glucose tolerance test and levels of adiponectin in plasma and adipose tissue were also quantified. Behavioral tests were conducted and levels of monoamines in various brain regions relating to depression were evaluated. Results: HPLC analysis uncovered three major constituents, adenosine, D-mannitol and cordycepin, within O. formosana similar to other prestigious medicinal Cordyceps spp.. STZ-induced diabetic mice demonstrated decreased body weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while these symptoms were recovered in mice receiving OFE treatment. Moreover, the OFE group displayed improved insulin sensitivity and elevated adiponectin within the plasma and adipose tissue. The anti-depressive effect of OFE was observed in various depression-related behavior tests. Concurrently, neurotransmitters, like 5-HT and dopamine in the frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus were found to be up-regulated in OFE-treated mice. Conclusions: Our findings illustrated, for the first time, the medicinal merits of O. formosana on Type I diabetes and hyperglycemia-induced depression. OFE were found to promote the expression of adiponectin, which is an adipokine involved in insulin sensitivity and hold anti-depressive effects. In addition, OFE administration also displayed altered levels of neurotransmitters in certain brain regions that may have contributed to its anti-depressive effect. Collectively, this current study provided insights to the potential therapeutic effects of O. formosana extracts in regards to hyperglycemia and its depressive complications. © 2016 The Author(s).


PubMed | National Taiwan University, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Mucho Biotechnology Inc. and University of Tsukuba
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC complementary and alternative medicine | Year: 2016

A newly defined Cordyceps species, Ophiocordyceps formosana (O. formosana) has been implicated in multitudinous bioactivities, including lowering glucose and cholesterol levels and modulating the immune system. However, few literatures demonstrate sufficient evidence to support these proposed functions. Although the use of Cordyceps spp. has been previously addressed to improve insulin insensitivity and improve the detrimental symptoms of depression; its mechanistic nature remains unsettled. Herein, we reveal the effects of O. formosana in ameliorating hyperglycemia accompanied with depression.Diabetes was induced in mice by employing streptozotocin(STZ), a chemical that is toxic to insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. These streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice showed combined symptoms of hyperglycemia and depressive behaviors. Twenty-four STZ-induced mice were randomly divided into 3 groups subjected to oral gavage with 100L solution of either PBS or 25mg/mL Ophiocordyceps formosana extract (OFE) or 2mg/mL rosiglitazone (Rosi, positive control group). Treatments were administered once per day for 28days. An additional 6 mice without STZ induction were treated with PBS to serve as the control group. Insulin sensitivity was measured by a glucose tolerance test and levels of adiponectin in plasma and adipose tissue were also quantified. Behavioral tests were conducted and levels of monoamines in various brain regions relating to depression were evaluated.HPLC analysis uncovered three major constituents, adenosine, D-mannitol and cordycepin, within O. formosana similar to other prestigious medicinal Cordyceps spp.. STZ-induced diabetic mice demonstrated decreased body weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue, while these symptoms were recovered in mice receiving OFE treatment. Moreover, the OFE group displayed improved insulin sensitivity and elevated adiponectin within the plasma and adipose tissue. The anti-depressive effect of OFE was observed in various depression-related behavior tests. Concurrently, neurotransmitters, like 5-HT and dopamine in the frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus were found to be up-regulated in OFE-treated mice.Our findings illustrated, for the first time, the medicinal merits of O. formosana on Type I diabetes and hyperglycemia-induced depression. OFE were found to promote the expression of adiponectin, which is an adipokine involved in insulin sensitivity and hold anti-depressive effects. In addition, OFE administration also displayed altered levels of neurotransmitters in certain brain regions that may have contributed to its anti-depressive effect. Collectively, this current study provided insights to the potential therapeutic effects of O. formosana extracts in regards to hyperglycemia and its depressive complications.


PubMed | Mucho Biotechnology Inc., National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, National Taiwan University and University of Tsukuba
Type: | Journal: Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM | Year: 2015

The substantial merit of Cordyceps s.l. spp. in terms of medicinal benefits is largely appreciated. Nevertheless, only few studies have characterized and examined the clinical complications of the use of health tonics containing these species. Here, we epitypified C. formosana isolates that were collected and characterized as Ophiocordyceps formosana based on morphological characteristics, molecular phylogenetic analyses, and metabolite profiling. Thus, we renamed and transferred C. formosana to the new protologue Ophiocordyceps formosana (Kobayasi & Shimizu) Wang, Tsai, Tzean & Shen comb. nov. Additionally, the pharmacological potential of O. formosana was evaluated based on the hot-water extract from its mycelium. The relative amounts of the known bioactive ingredients that are unique to Cordyceps s.l. species in O. formosana were found to be similar to the amounts in O. sinensis and C. militaris, indicating the potential applicability of O. formosana for pharmacological uses. Additionally, we found that O. formosana exhibited antioxidation activities in vitro and in vivo that were similar to those of O. sinensis and C. militaris. Furthermore, O. formosana also displayed conspicuously effective antitumor activity compared with the tested Cordyceps s.l. species. Intrinsically, O. formosana exhibited less toxicity than the other Cordyceps species. Together, our data suggest that the metabolites of O. formosana may play active roles in complementary medicine.

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