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Taipei, Taiwan

Wang Y.-W.,National Taiwan University | Hong T.-W.,Mucho Biotechnology Inc. | Tai Y.-L.,National Taiwan University | Wang Y.-J.,National Taiwan University | And 11 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2015

The substantial merit of Cordyceps s.l. spp. in terms of medicinal benefits is largely appreciated. Nevertheless, only few studies have characterized and examined the clinical complications of the use of health tonics containing these species. Here, we epitypified C. formosana isolates that were collected and characterized as Ophiocordyceps formosana based on morphological characteristics, molecular phylogenetic analyses, and metabolite profiling. Thus, we renamed and transferred C. formosana to the new protologue Ophiocordyceps formosana (Kobayasi & Shimizu) Wang, Tsai, Tzean & Shen comb. nov. Additionally, the pharmacological potential of O. formosana was evaluated based on the hot-water extract from its mycelium. The relative amounts of the known bioactive ingredients that are unique to Cordyceps s.l. species in O. formosana were found to be similar to the amounts in O. sinensis and C. militaris, indicating the potential applicability of O. formosana for pharmacological uses. Additionally, we found that O. formosana exhibited antioxidation activities in vitro and in vivo that were similar to those of O. sinensis and C. militaris. Furthermore, O. formosana also displayed conspicuously effective antitumor activity compared with the tested Cordyceps s.l. species. Intrinsically, O. formosana exhibited less toxicity than the other Cordyceps species. Together, our data suggest that the metabolites of O. formosana may play active roles in complementary medicine. © 2015 Yen-Wen Wang et al. Source


Chou S.-M.,National Taiwan University | Lai W.-J.,Mucho Biotechnology Inc. | Hong T.-W.,Mucho Biotechnology Inc. | Hong T.-W.,National Taiwan University | And 10 more authors.
Phytomedicine | Year: 2014

Cordyceps militaris is a well-known Chinese traditional medicinal mushroom frequently used for tonics and recently of a potential interest for cancer intervention. Here, we explored the cancer cell killing activity of the hot water extracts of C. militaris cultured mycelia (CMMY) and cultivated fruiting bodies (CMFB). We found that CMFBexhibited a greater cytotoxic effect against various cancer cells over CMMY. Apoptotic phenotypes including apoptotic body formation, DNA laddering, caspase 3 activation and cleavage of PARP proteins were induced by CMFBtreatment but only slightly induced by same concentration of CMMYtreatment in human HL-60 leukemia cells. Cordycepin in CMFB(10.47 mg/g) is significantly higher (∼15.2 times) than that of CMMY(0.69 mg/g). Using isobolographic analysis, the synergy of cytotoxicity was observed across different combined concentrations of CMMYand cordycepin. By complementing cordycepin into CMMYto the level comparable with CMFB, we observed that CMMY(500 μg/ml) with cordycepin (4.8 μg/ml) induced apoptosis to a level similar to that induced by CMFB(500 μg/ml). Together, our results suggest that cordycepin possesses a synergistic cytotoxic effect with Cordyceps militaris-mediated apoptosis in human leukemia cells and therefore explaining a better anti-proliferating activity of CMFBover CMMY. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. Source


Chou S.-M.,National Taiwan University | Lai W.-J.,Mucho Biotechnology Inc. | Hong T.,Mucho Biotechnology Inc. | Hong T.,National Taiwan University | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Chinese Medicine | Year: 2015

Cordyceps militaris is a traditional Chinese medicine frequently used for tonic and therapeutic purposes. Reports from our laboratory and others have demonstrated that extracts of the cultivated fruiting bodies of C. militaris (CM) exhibit a potent cytotoxic effect against many cancer cell lines, especially human leukemia cells. Here, we further investigated the underlying mechanism through which CM is cytotoxic to cancer cells. The CM-mediated induction of PARP cleavage and its related DNA damage signal (γH2AX) was diminished by caspase inhibitor I. In contrast, a ROS scavenger failed to prevent CM-mediated leukemia cell death. Moreover, two signaling molecules, AKT and p38 MAPK, were activated during the course of apoptosis induction. Employing MTT analysis, we found that a p38 MAPK inhibitor but not an AKT inhibitor could rescue cells from CM-mediated cell death, as well as inhibit the cleavage of PARP, formation of apoptotic bodies and up-regulation of the γH2AX signal. These results suggest that CM-mediated leukemia cell death occurs through the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway, indicating its potential therapeutic effects against human leukemia. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company & Institute for Advanced Research in Asian Science and Medicine. Source

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