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Abou-Shanab R.A.I.,Yonsei University | Abou-Shanab R.A.I.,Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications | Hwang J.-H.,Yonsei University | Cho Y.,Kwangwoon University | And 2 more authors.
Applied Energy

Due to increasing oil prices and climate change concerns, biodiesel has gained attention as an alternative energy source. Biodiesel derived from microalgae is a potentially renewable and carbon-neutral alternative to petroleum fuels. One of the most important decisions in obtaining oil from microalgae is the choice of algal species to use. Eight microalgae from a total of 33 isolated cultures were selected based on their morphology and ease of cultivation. Five cultures were isolated from river and identified as strains of Scenedesmus obliquus YSR01, Nitzschia cf. pusilla YSR02, Chlorella ellipsoidea YSR03, S. obliquus YSR04, and S. obliquus YSR05, and three were isolated from wastewater and identified as S. obliquus YSW06, Micractinium pusillum YSW07, and Ourococcus multisporus YSW08, based on LSU rDNA (D1-D2) and ITS sequence analyses. S. obliquus YSR01 reached a growth rate of 1.68±0.28 day-1 at 680nm and a biomass concentration of 1.57±0.67g dwt L-1, with a high lipid content of 58±1.5%. Under similar environmental conditions, M. pusillum reached a growth rate of 2.3±0.55 day-1 and a biomass concentration of 2.28±0.16g dwt L-1, with a relatively low lipid content of 24±0.5% w/w. The fatty acid compositions of the studied species were mainly myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, g-linolenic, and linolenic acids. Our results suggest that S. obliquus YSR01 can be a possible candidate species for producing oils for biodiesel, based on its high lipid and oleic acid contents. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ibrahim S.S.,Cairo University | Hafez E.E.,Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications | Hashishe M.M.,Alexandria University
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research

Background. Breast cancer is one of the most common diseases affecting women. Inherited susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are considered in breast, ovarian and other common cancers etiology. BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have been identified that confer a high degree of breast cancer risk. Objective. Our study was performed to identify germline mutations in some exons of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes for the early detection of presymptomatic breast cancer in females. Methods. This study was applied on Egyptian healthy females who first degree relatives to those, with or without a family history, infected with breast cancer. Sixty breast cancer patients, derived from 60 families, were selected for molecular genetic testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The study also included 120 healthy first degree female relatives of the patients, either sisters and/or daughters, for early detection of presymptomatic breast cancer mutation carriers. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes of all the studied subjects. Universal primers were used to amplify four regions of the BRCA1 gene (exons 2,8,13 and 22) and one region (exon 9) of BRCA2 gene using specific PCR. The polymerase chain reaction was carried out. Single strand conformation polymorphism assay and heteroduplex analysis were used to screen for mutations in the studied exons. In addition, DNA sequencing of the normal and mutated exons were performed. Results. Mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were detected in 86.7% of the families. Current study indicates that 60% of these families were attributable to BRCA1 mutations, while 26.7% of them were attributable to BRCA2 mutations. Results showed that four mutations were detected in the BRCA1 gene, while one mutation was detected in the BRCA2 gene. Asymptomatic relatives, 80(67%) out of total 120, were mutation carriers. Conclusions. BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes mutations are responsible for a significant proportion of breast cancer. BRCA mutations were found in individuals with and without family history. © 2010 Ibrahim et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Sifour M.,Jijel University | Saeed H.M.,Alexandria University | Zaghloul T.L.,Alexandria University | Berekaa M.M.,Alexandria University | Abdel-Fattah Y.R.,Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications

In earlier study a new thermophilic strain Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain-5 producing thermostable lipase was isolated and identified based on 16S rRNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its closeness to geobacilli especially the thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus with optimal growth and lipolytic enzyme activity at 60°C and pH 7.0. In this study thermostable lipase gene from this bacterium was isolated by PCR using degenerate primers. The DNA fragment coding for lipase gene was cloned in the pCR 4-TOPO plasmid and the ligation products were transformed into Escherichia coli XL1-blue cells. Partial sequencing of the gene was carried out (accession number DQ923401). Analysis by BLAST program showed some sequence similarity to that, of several lipase genes from thermophilic Geobacillus and Bacillus submitted to Genhank. © 2010 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

El-Sersy N.A.,National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries of Egypt | Abd-Elnaby H.,National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries of Egypt | Abou-Elela G.M.,National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries of Egypt | Ibrahim H.A.H.,National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries of Egypt | El-Toukhy N.M.K.,Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications
African Journal of Biotechnology

Cellulase is a very important enzyme due to its great industrial applications. Six marine strains of actinomycetes were screened for their carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) productivity. Streptomyces ruber was chosen to be the best producing strain. The highest enzyme production (25.6 U/ml) was detected at pH 6 and 40°C after 7 days of incubation. Plackett-Burman design was applied to optimize the different culture conditions affecting enzyme production. Results showed that a high concentration of KH2PO4, and a low concentration of MgSO4 had a significant effect on enzyme production. Rice straw was used as a low cost source of cellulose. It was found that 30 g/l rice straw was the suitable concentration for maximum enzyme production. Partial purification of cellulase enzyme using an anionexchange chromatography resulted in the detection of two different types of CMCases, type I and II, with specific activity of 4239.697 and 846.752 U/mg, respectively. Moreover, estimation of their molecular weight revealed 27.0 kDa for cellulase type I and 24.0 kDa for cellulase type II. It could be concluded that S. ruber is a powerful cellulase producer strain under our tested experimental conditions. © 2010 Academic Journals. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE.2010.3.5-03 | Award Amount: 3.91M | Year: 2011

The project ULIXES aims to unravel, categorize, catalogue, exploit and manage the microbial diversity available in the Mediterranean Sea for addressing bioremediation of polluted marine sites. The idea behind ULIXES is that the multitude of diverse environmental niches of the Mediterranean Sea contains a huge range of microorganisms and their components (e.g. catabolic enzymes) or products (e.g. biosurfactant) that can be exploited in pollutant- and site-tailored bioremediation approaches. ULIXES intends to provide the proof of concept that it is possible to establish and exploit for bioremediation site-specific collections of microbial strains, mixed microbial cultures, enzymes, biosurfactants and other microbial products. These biotechnological resources will be mined by using approaches based on isolation of culturable microorganisms as well as by extensively applying advanced novel meta-omics technologies recently developed by the project partners and exclusively available for ULIXES. Three pollutant classes recognized worldwide as environmental priorities will be considered: petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated compounds and heavy metals. A large set of polluted environmental matrices from sites located all over the Mediterranean Sea will be explored, including seashore sands, lagoon sediments, deep sea sediments polluted by heavy oil hydrocarbons at oil tanker shipwreck sites, hypersaline waters and sediments from polluted salty coastal lakes and natural deep hypersaline anoxic submarine basins and mud volcanoes where hydrocarbon seepages occur. The mined collections of microbial biotechnological products will be exploited for development of novel improved bioremediation processes whose effectiveness will be proved by ex situ and in situ field bioremediation trials. A careful dissemination action will be pursued to assure capillary information of the ULIXES results and products to stakeholders and SMEs operating in the sector of marine bioremediation.

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