Jokioinen, Finland
Jokioinen, Finland

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Kortesniemi M.,University of Turku | Vuorinen A.L.,University of Turku | Sinkkonen J.,University of Turku | Yang B.,University of Turku | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with 1H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hakojarvi M.,University of Helsinki | Hautala M.,University of Helsinki | Ristolainen A.,MTT Plant Production Research | Alakukku L.,University of Helsinki
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2013

The crop growth is highly dependent on growth conditions which vary from year to year making precision farming challenging. In the present paper was first investigated whether varying soil physical properties reflect the within-field yield variation of small grain cereals and how do the variations in weather conditions between growing seasons affect the within-field yield variation. Secondly, the potential biomass accumulation of the crop in existing soil and weather conditions was simulated. The simulated and experimentally based site-specific total biomasses were compared in order to find out whether the soil data explains the observed variations in yield.Three experimental fields size of 3-4ha were established to examine the spatio-temporal yield variation during three years. The clay content of soils was high (> 46%) and soils were classified as Stagni-Vertic Cambisols. Correlations between soil water retention properties and crop yield were studied. Top and subsoil saturated (SWC), field capacity (FC) and permanent wilting point (PWP) water content, and saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil (Ksat), were determined from 19 to 24 places on each field once during the three years experimental period. During growing seasons, soil moisture content and leaf area index (LAI) were determined at same places biweekly, and yield was harvested. Spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) was grown on two fields, and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2 years) and spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., one year) were grown on the third field.The measured grain yields correlated with selected soil physical properties only in few cases. The observed spatial variation in the biomass was in most cases found to be higher than the simulated. Therefore, the above mentioned parameters were not enough to predict the yield correctly in case of high variations. There were other factors decreasing the observed yield e.g. lodging, cold summer, extremely high precipitation and slopes in field. According to our results it is evident that it is very difficult to predict site-specific biomass accumulation solely by soil properties in order, for instance, to fertilize in a site-specific manner. Therefore one needs to measure the crop during the growing season in order to simulate the biomass accumulation for precision farming purposes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Hakojarvi M.,University of Helsinki | Hautala M.,University of Helsinki | Ristolainen A.,MTT Plant Production Research | Alakukku L.,University of Helsinki
IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline) | Year: 2013

Recent farming machinery provides multiple ways to gather spatial information about soil and cultivated crop properties. However, collected information can not be used straight forward for decision making purposes due to complex relationships between crop growth, weather and soil properties. A quantitative analysis of yield data from three fields over three years was carried out to investigate the spatial and temporal trends. At first it was studied if varying soil water retention properties reflect the observed within-field yield variation of small grain cereals and whether the variations in weather conditions between growing seasons affect the within-field yield variation. Secondly, the potential biomass accumulation in existing soil with varying precipitation was simulated and analysed. The analysis results of the observed biomass yield and simulated biomass yield were compared. The variation in soil water retention properties was found to have an effect to yield variation. However, soil properties alone were concluded not to be enough to predict the yield and the yield variation correctly in case of high variations. There were other factors affecting the observed yield variation, e.g. lodging, cold summer, extremely high precipitation and the field topography. The prediction of sitespecific biomass accumulation solely by soil properties was concluded to be impossible. Therefore crop observations were found necessary among the knowledge of soil properties in order to simulate the potential biomass accumulation for precision farming purposes. Copyright © 2013 IFAC.


Nukari A.,MTT Plant Production Research | Laamanen J.,MTT Plant Production Research | Uosukainen M.,MTT Plant Production Research
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The MTT Plant Production Research unit urgently needs to transfer some lilac (Syringa sp.) accessions from the active vegetative nursery propagation phase into long-term preservation. The modified droplet vitrification method was tested for the cryopreservation of lilac. Currently, virus-free lilac mother plants are maintained at MTT in an isolated greenhouse. In vitro cultures, maintained at normal growth conditions, are used for propagation. In this study, apical buds from a virus-tested lilac accession (Syringa × henryi 'Julia') were excised from micropropagated plantlets. The buds were pretreated on high sucrose Murashige and Skoog gelrite-gelled medium for three days with constant or stepwise increasing sucrose concentrations. The buds were treated with a loading solution for 30 min and PVS2 for 45 min and subsequently frozen on aluminium foil strips. No improvement was achieved by stepwise increasing sucrose concentrations during preculture. We conclude that the droplet vitrification protocol in combination with 0.5 M sucrose pretreatment was a suitable method for cryopreservation of lilac. Further research is needed to obtain an optimal cryopreservation protocol for lilac shoots.

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