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Helsinki, Finland

In this article, our aim is to study the incidences of local differences in drunk driving reported to the police and to provide information about their local preventions. We analyzed the incidence of the drunk driving with a geographically weighted regression model (Geographically Weighted Regression, GWR). The model produced detailed local information on the occurrence of risk factors related to drunken driving. The local incidences of drunk driving were explained by the alcoholic sales, the use of antidepressants, unemployment and educational attainment. The results show that local prevention models could use the information of the GWR model to increase the efficiency of the drunk driving prevention. Source


Iho A.,MTT Economic Research | Lankoski J.,University of Helsinki | Ollikainen M.,University of Helsinki | Puustinen M.,Finnish Environment Institute | Lehtimaki J.,University of Turku
Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics | Year: 2014

We examine environmental auctions on working agricultural lands. We organized a discriminatory auction where farmers were asked to make bids on spreading gypsum on their fields to reduce phosphorus loads to surface waters. The parcel-specific bids were ranked based on their load reduction-compensation ratios. To assess load reductions, we built an environmental benefit index (EBI) based on three factors: P-status of the soil (phosphorus available for crops), field slope and location with respect to waterways. As the per tonne price of gypsum delivery from the factory was higher for small quantities, the auction format allowed bundling of field parcels to reduce transportation costs. We evaluate auction's ability to target the environmental (or abatement) measures to field parcels with the highest load reduction potential and analyse the economic efficiency of the auction by comparing the pilot auction with simulated bidding behaviour and with hypothetical flat rate payment schemes. The pilot auction targeted the environmental measures effectively. It was also more efficient than a flat rate payment, even when the flat rate scheme was combined with an EBI eligibility criterion. © 2014 Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society Inc. Source


Heikkila J.,MTT Economic Research
Agricultural and Food Science | Year: 2011

Society's resources are scarce, and biosecurity actions need to be targeted and prioritised. Various models have been developed that prioritise and rank pests and diseases according to the risks they represent. A prioritisation model allows utilisation of scientific, ecological and economic information in decision-making related to biological hazards. This study discusses such models and the properties associated with them based on a review of 78 prioritisation studies. The scope of the models includes all aspects of biosecurity (human, animal and plant diseases, and invasive alien species), but with an emphasis on plant health. The geographical locations of the studies are primarily North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Half of the studies were conducted during the past five years. The review finds that there generally seems to be several prioritisation models, especially in the case of invasive plants, but only a select few models are used extensively. Impacts are often accounted for in the model, but the extent and economic sophistication of their inclusion varies. Treatment of uncertainty and feasibility of control was lacking from many studies. © Agricultural and Food Science. Source


Heikkila J.,MTT Economic Research
Agronomy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2011

Biosecurity is a concept that has important economic, social, ecological and health-related dimensions. By biosecurity we mean protection of production, ecosystems, health and the social infrastructure from external threats caused by pests, pathogens and diseases of various forms and origins. The fact that more goods, transport platforms and people are moving around the globe at increasing speeds provides unforeseen possibilities for rapid spread of different types of organisms. This is exacerbated by changes in the production structures and climate. As a result, both the benefits and the risks of changes in the food system cross borders more often, leading to an increased demand for biosecurity policies. Economics can be related to biosecurity in at least three fundamental ways. First, many of the ultimate or proximate causes of bioinvasions create economic welfare. Second, bioinvasions result in various types of impacts, many of which are economic by nature - or at least may be measured in economic terms. Third, the negative impacts of invasions or their probability of occurrence can often be either avoided or reduced. These biosecurity policies themselves have economic implications, which often may be quite different from those caused by the biological hazard itself. A few reviews of separate components of economics of biosecurity exist, but there have been no attempts to review the big picture. Instead, the previous reviews have concentrated on different components of biosecurity such as invasive species or animal diseases. Our aim is to look at the issue in broad terms, draw some commonalities from the research conducted, and identify areas in which economic analyses have primarily been conducted and in which areas there remains work to do. The review includes about 230 studies from all areas of biosecurity up to the year 2008. The review finds that study of economics of biosecurity is growing steadily, but is still relatively concentrated on narrow questions, few countries, few species/diseases and few journals. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010. Source


Leung B.,McGill University | Roura-Pascual N.,University of Girona | Roura-Pascual N.,Center Tecnologic Forestal Of Catalonia | Bacher S.,University of Fribourg | And 9 more authors.
Ecology Letters | Year: 2013

We address criticism that the Transport, Establishment, Abundance, Spread, Impact (TEASI) framework does not facilitate objective mapping of risk assessment methods nor defines best practice. We explain why TEASI is appropriate for mapping, despite inherent challenges, and how TEASI offers considerations for best practices, rather than suggesting one best practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS. Source

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