MTA SE Pediatrics and Nephrology Research Group

Budapest, Hungary

MTA SE Pediatrics and Nephrology Research Group

Budapest, Hungary
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Dezsi L.,Semmelweis University | Fulop T.,Semmelweis University | Meszaros T.,Semmelweis University | Szenasi G.,Semmelweis University | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2014

Pigs are known to provide a sensitive model for studying complement (C) activation-related pseudoallergy (CARPA), a hypersensitivity reaction to liposomal and many other nanomedicines that limits their clinical use. The utility of rats as a CARPA model has, however, not been analyzed to date in detail. The present study compared the two models by inducing CARPA with i.v. bolus injections of two reactogenic liposomes that differed from each other in surface properties: one was AmBisome, a strong anionic, free-surface small unilamellar liposome (SUV), while the other was neutral, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-grafted SUV wherein the 2 kDa-PEG was anchored to the membrane via cholesterol (Chol-PEG). Both in pigs and rats AmBisome caused significant consumption of C3, indicating C activation, along with paralleling massive changes in blood pressure, white blood cell, platelet counts and in plasma thromboxane B2 levels, indicating CARPA. These processes were similar in the two species in terms of kinetics, but significantly differed in the doses that caused major hemodynamic changes (~ 0.01 and ~ 22 mg phospholipid (PL)/kg in pigs and rats, respectively). Pigs responded to AmBisome with pulmonary hypertension and systemic hypotension, and the reaction was not tachyphylactic. The major response of rats was systemic hypotension, leukopenia followed by leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia. Chol-PEG liposomes caused severe reaction in pigs at 0.1 mg/kg, while the reaction they caused in rats was mild even at 300 mg PL/kg. Importantly, the reaction to Chol-PEG in pigs was partly tachyphylactic. These observations highlight fundamental differences in the immune mechanisms of porcine and rat CARPA, and also show a major impact of liposome surface characteristics, determining the presence or absence of tachyphylaxis. The data suggest that rats are 2-3 orders of magnitude less sensitive to liposomal CARPA than pigs; however, the causes of these differences, the PEG-dependent tachyphylaxis and the massive reactivity of Chol-PEG liposomes remain unclear. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Grozdics E.,Semmelweis University | Berta L.,Semmelweis University | Bajnok A.,Semmelweis University | Veres G.,University of Szeged | And 9 more authors.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2014

Background: B7 costimulatory molecules are expressed on antigen presenting cells (APCs) and are important regulators of T cell activation. We investigated the role of the B7 family of costimulatory molecules in the development of the systemic maternal immune tolerance during healthy pregnancy (HP). We also aimed to investigate the intracellular expression of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and plasma levels of tryptophane (TRP), kynurenine (KYN) and kynurenic acid (KYNA), important molecules with immunoregulatory properties, in order to describe their potential contribution to the pregnancy-specific maternal immune tolerance. Methods: We determined the frequency of activated (CD11b+) monocytes expressing B7-1, B7-2, B7-H1, and B7-H2, and that of T cells and CD4+ T helper cells expressing CD28, CTLA-4, PD-1, and ICOS in peripheral blood samples of healthy pregnant (HP) and non-pregnant (NP) women using flow cytometry. We also examined the intracellular expression of IDO applying flow cytometry and plasma levels of TRP, KYN and KYNA using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: A significant increase in the prevalence of CD28+ T cells was observed in HP compared to NP women. At the same time a decrease was shown in the expression of CTLA-4 on these cells. The frequency of CD80+ monocytes was lower in HP women. The prevalence of IDO-expressing T cells and monocytes was higher in HP compared to NP women. Plasma KYN, KYNA and TRP levels were lower, while at the same time, the KYN/TRP ratio was higher in HP than in NP women. Conclusions: Costimulation via CD28 may not contribute to the immunosuppressive environment, at least in the third trimester of pregnancy. The development of the pregnancy-specific immune tolerance in the mechanism of B7 costimulation may be more related to the altered expression of B7 proteins on APCs rather than that of their receptors on T cells. The elevated intracellular IDO expression in monocytes and T cells, as well as higher plasma enzymatic IDO activity are likely to contribute to the systemic immunosuppressive environment in the third trimester characteristic for healthy gestation.

Sanger N.,University Hospital Frankfurt | Ruckhaberle E.,Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf | Gyorffy B.,MTA TTK Lendulet Cancer Biomarker Research Group | Gyorffy B.,Semmelweis University | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Oncology | Year: 2015

Acid ceramidase (ASAH1) a key enzyme of sphingolipid metabolism converting pro-apoptotic ceramide to sphingosine has been shown to be overexpressed in various cancers. We previously demonstrated higher expression of ASAH1 in ER positive compared to ER negative breast cancer. In the current study we performed subtype specific analyses of ASAH1 gene expression in invasive and non invasive breast cancer. We show that expression of ASAH1 is mainly associated with luminal A - like cancers which are known to have the best prognosis of all breast cancer subtypes. Moreover tumors with high ASAH1 expression among the other subtypes are also characterized by an improved prognosis. The good prognosis of tumors with high ASAH1 is independent of the type of adjuvant treatment in breast cancer and is also detected in non small cell lung cancer patients. Moreover, even in pre-invasive DCIS of the breast ASAH1 is associated with a luminal phenotype and a reduced frequency of recurrences. Thus, high ASAH1 expression is generally associated with an improved prognosis in invasive breast cancer independent of adjuvant treatment and could also be valuable as prognostic factor for pre-invasive DCIS. © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

Dezsi L.,Semmelweis University | Rosivall L.,Semmelweis University | Rosivall L.,MTA SE Pediatrics and Nephrology Research Group | Hamar P.,Semmelweis University | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2015

Complement activation-related pseudoallergy (CARPA) is a hypersensitivity reaction to intravenous administration of nanoparticle-containing medicines (nanomedicines). This review focuses on CARPA in rodent models: rats, mice, guinea pigs and rabbits. Information on all aspects of hypersensitivity reactions caused by known complement activators (zymosan, cobra venom factor) and different nanomedicines (liposomes, other drug carrier nanocarriers) in these species has been compiled and analyzed, trying to highlight the similarities and differences. What is most common in all species' reactions to i.v. complement activators, liposomes and other nanoparticles is a dose-dependent hemodynamic and cardiopulmonary disturbance manifested in acute, reversible rise or fall of blood pressure and respiratory distress that can lead to shock. Other symptoms include heart rate changes, leukopenia followed by leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration due to fluid extravasation (rise of hematocrit) and rise of plasma thromboxane B2. The results of a recent rat study are detailed, which show that rats are 2-3 orders of magnitude less sensitive to liposome-induced CARPA than pigs or hypersensitive humans. It is concluded that CARPA can be studied in rodent models, but they do not necessarily mimic the human reactions in terms of symptom spectrum and sensitivity. © 2015 by De Gruyter.

Teleki I.,Semmelweis University | Szasz A.M.,Semmelweis University | Maros M.E.,Semmelweis University | Gyorffy B.,MTA TTK Lendulet Cancer Biomarker Research Group | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background and Aims: Connexins and their cell membrane channels contribute to the control of cell proliferation and compartmental functions in breast glands and their deregulation is linked to breast carcinogenesis. Our aim was to correlate connexin expression with tumor progression and prognosis in primary breast cancers.Materials and Methods: Meta-analysis of connexin isotype expression data of 1809 and 1899 breast cancers from the Affymetrix and Illumina array platforms, respectively, was performed. Expressed connexins were also monitored at the protein level in tissue microarrays of 127 patients equally representing all tumor grades, using immunofluorescence and multilayer, multichannel digital microscopy. Prognostic correlations were plotted in Kaplan-Meier curves and tested using the log-rank test and cox-regression analysis in univariate and multivariate models.Results: The expression of GJA1/Cx43, GJA3/Cx46 and GJB2/Cx26, for the first time, GJA6/Cx30 and GJB1/Cx32 was revealed both in normal human mammary glands and breast carcinomas. Within their subfamilies these connexins can form homo- and heterocellular epithelial channels. In cancer, the array datasets cross-validated each other's prognostic results. In line with the significant correlations found at mRNA level, elevated Cx43 protein levels were linked with significantly improved breast cancer outcome, offering Cx43 protein detection as an independent prognostic marker stronger than vascular invasion or necrosis. As a contrary, elevated Cx30 mRNA and protein levels were associated with a reduced disease outcome offering Cx30 protein detection as an independent prognostic marker outperforming mitotic index and necrosis. Elevated versus low Cx43 protein levels allowed the stratification of grade 2 tumors into good and poor relapse free survival subgroups, respectively. Also, elevated versus low Cx30 levels stratified grade 3 patients into poor and good overall survival subgroups, respectively.Conclusion: Differential expression of Cx43 and Cx30 may serve as potential positive and negative prognostic markers, respectively, for a clinically relevant stratification of breast cancers. © 2014 Teleki et al.

Penzvalto Z.,Semmelweis University | Surowiak P.,Wroclaw Medical University | Gyorffy B.,MTA SE Pediatrics and Nephrology Research Group | Gyorffy B.,Semmelweis University
Current Cancer Drug Targets | Year: 2014

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most deadly tumor of the female reproductive system. Despite improvements in understanding the biology of EOC, therapeutic strategies still depend on surgery and combination of taxane and platinum agents. Here, we provide a summary of clinically tested biomarkers potentially useful to predict drug response. Resistance against platinum derivatives can result from lower drug concentrations, alterations in the target molecule and changes in the cellular signal transduction pathways. Taxane resistance can develop due to decreased intracellular drug concentration, alterations in microtubuli structure and changes in the cellular response including ERBB2 (epidermal growth factor receptor 2). A few key genes have been suggested as biomarkers for hormonal therapy. Currently, the only targeted therapy agent approved for ovarian cancer is the VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) inhibitor bevacizumab. Response to bevacizumab is correlated with VEGF-A levels and hypertension. The primary problems in identifying reliable biomarkers for EOC are the usage of different clinical endpoints, multivariate analysis for a panel of clinical parameters and the lack of published comprehensive clinical information of patients enrolled in these studies. The future lies in adding targeted agents to the taxane/platinum gold standard and in a more detailed stratification of patients into sub-cohorts enabling a more effective therapy. In conclusion, a large-scale coordinated effort is needed for the robust validation of the numerous biomarker candidates available in EOC therapy. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

Gyorffy B.,MTA TTK Lendulet Cancer Biomarker Research Group | Gyorffy B.,MTA SE Pediatrics and Nephrology Research Group | Gyorffy B.,Semmelweis University | Hatzis C.,Yale University | And 4 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research | Year: 2015

There is growing consensus that multigene prognostic tests provide useful complementary information to tumor size and grade in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers. The tests primarily rely on quantification of ER and proliferation-related genes and combine these into multivariate prediction models. Since ER-negative cancers tend to have higher proliferation rates, the prognostic value of current multigene tests in these cancers is limited. First-generation prognostic signatures (Oncotype DX, MammaPrint, Genomic Grade Index) are substantially more accurate to predict recurrence within the first 5 years than in later years. This has become a limitation with the availability of effective extended adjuvant endocrine therapies. Newer tests (Prosigna, EndoPredict, Breast Cancer Index) appear to possess better prognostic value for late recurrences while also remaining predictive of early relapse. Some clinical prediction problems are more difficult to solve than others: there are no clinically useful prognostic signatures for ER-negative cancers, and drug-specific treatment response predictors also remain elusive. Emerging areas of research involve the development of immune gene signatures that carry modest but significant prognostic value independent of proliferation and ER status and represent candidate predictive markers for immune-targeted therapies. Overall metrics of tumor heterogeneity and genome integrity (for example, homologue recombination deficiency score) are emerging as potential new predictive markers for platinum agents. The recent expansion of high-throughput technology platforms including low-cost sequencing of circulating and tumor-derived DNA and RNA and rapid reliable quantification of microRNA offers new opportunities to build extended prediction models across multiplatform data. © Gyorffy et al.

Gyorffy B.,MTA TTK Lendulet Cancer Biomarker Research Group | Gyorffy B.,Semmelweis University | Gyorffy B.,MTA SE Pediatrics and Nephrology Research Group | Karn T.,Goethe University Frankfurt | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

The molecular diversity of breast cancer makes it impossible to identify prognostic markers that are applicable to all breast cancers. To overcome limitations of previous multigene prognostic classifiers, we propose a new dynamic predictor: instead of using a single universal training cohort and an identical list of informative genes to predict the prognosis of new cases, a case-specific predictor is developed for each test case. Gene expression data from 3,534 breast cancers with clinical annotation including relapse-free survival is analyzed. For each test case, we select a case-specific training subset including only molecularly similar cases and a case-specific predictor is generated. This method yields different training sets and different predictors for each new patient. The model performance was assessed in leave-one-out validation and also in 325 independent cases. Prognostic discrimination was high for all cases (n=3,534, HR=3.68, p=1.67 E256). The dynamic predictor showed higher overall accuracy (0.68) than genomic surrogates for Oncotype DX (0.64), Genomic Grade Index (0.61) or MammaPrint (0.47). The dynamic predictor was also effective in triple-negative cancers (n=427, HR=3.08, p=0.0093) where the above classifiers all failed. Validation in independent patients yielded similar classification power (HR=3.57). The dynamic classifier is available online at In summary, we developed a new method to make personalized prognostic prediction using case-specific training cohorts. The dynamic predictors outperform static models developed from single historical training cohorts and they also predict well in triple-negative cancers. © 2014 UICC.

Deng L.,University of Sichuan | Gyorffy B.,MTA TTK Lendulet Cancer Biomarker Research Group | Gyorffy B.,Semmelweis University | Gyorffy B.,MTA SE Pediatrics and Nephrology Research Group | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology | Year: 2015

Introduction: Immune checkpoint blockade is being investigated in clinical trials and showed great potential in lung cancer. The prognostic roles of and clinicopathological factors associated with immune checkpoint gene expression, CTLA-4 and PDCD1 remain largely undefined, which encodes cytotoxic-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), respectively. Methods: We used a lung cancer database of 1715 patients measured by Affymetrix microarrays to analyze the association of gene expression with clinicopathological factors and survival. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for overall survival (OS) were calculated. Cutoffs were determined by median across the entire database. Results: In 909 patients with histology information, significantly higher PDCD1 and CTLA-4 expression were found in squamous carcinoma than adenocarcinoma. In 848 patients with known smoking history, current/former smokers were found to have significantly elevated gene expression compared with nonsmokers. Significant higher expression of both genes were found in TNM stage II versus I. Higher expression of PDCD1 predicted worse OS in univariate analysis, but not in multivariate (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 0.53-2.79). CTLA-4 was marginally significant in univariate analysis of the entire set (HR: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.99-1.34). In patients with information for multivariate analysis, higher expression of CTLA-4 was associated with worse OS (HR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.18-3.31). Conclusions: In this study with large number of patients, PDCD1 and CTLA-4 expression is significantly higher in squamous carcinoma and current/former smokers. Higher expression of CTLA-4, but not PDCD1 predicts worse survival. © 2015 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer.

Menyhart O.,MTA TTK Lendulet Cancer Biomarker Research Group | Santarpia L.,IRCCS Humanitas Clinical and Research Institute | Gyorffy B.,MTA TTK Lendulet Cancer Biomarker Research Group | Gyorffy B.,MTA SE Pediatrics and Nephrology Research Group | Gyorffy B.,Semmelweis University
Current Cancer Drug Targets | Year: 2015

The introduction of trastuzumab for anti-HER2 therapy dramatically changed the clinical outcome for HER2 (ERBB2, neu) positive breast cancer patients. Today, patients eligible for trastuzumab are selected using HER2 expression/amplification status of the primary tumor. However, acquired and inherent resistance to anti-HER2 therapy in these patients poses a significant challenge, and better patient stratification will be needed to improve clinical response. Here, we provide a wide-ranging overview of potential biomarkers capable of stratifying patients regarding their response to trastuzumab. These include HER2 amplification, impaired access to the binding site (p95HER2, Δ16HER-2, MUC4), augmented signaling through other ERBB family receptors (HER1, HER3, HER4) and their ligands, activation of HER2 targets by alternate heterodimers (EphA2, IGF-1R, GDF15, MUC1*), signaling triggered by downstream members (PIK3CA, PTEN, SRC, mTOR), altered expression of cell cycle and apoptotic regulators (CDKs, p27kip1, Bcl-2), hormone receptor status, resistance to antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (FcγR), and altered miRNA expression signatures. Multigenic molecular profile analyses have revealed further genes not directly associated with classical oncogenic pathways. Although numerous biomarkers have shown promise in pre-clinical studies, many have delivered controversial results when evaluated in clinical trials. One of the keys for targeting ERBB2 will be to consider the entire ERBB family and downstream associated pathways responsible for the malignant transformation. The heterogeneity of the disease is likely to represent a significant obstacle to accurately predicting the course of resistance. The future most probably involves the incorporation of multiple biomarkers into a unified predictor enabling selection of patients for superior targeted drug administration. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.

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